Mothering Editor and Publisher Peggy O’Mara interviews Dr. Andrew Wakefield; coauthor of a 1998 study that suggested a link between Crohn’s Disease and the Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR) vaccine in some children. He has been accused of incorrectly linking the MMR vaccine with autism. In this special interview, Wakefield discusses the current controversy surrounding his research.
Past Articles and Responses to Dr. Wakefield’s Research
Sunday Times article calling the 1998 study into question in Feb 2004: MMR Research Scandal. Brian Deer. The Sunday Times (London). 22 February 2004
Retraction of the study by ten of the authors in March 2004: Retraction of an Interpretation. Simon H Murch, Andrew Anthony, David H Casson, Mohsin Malik, Mark Berelowitz, Amar P Dhillon, Michael A Thompson, Alan Valentine, Susan E Davies, John A Walker-Smith. The Lancet, Volume 363, Issue 9411, Page 750. 6 March 2004
Response to the retraction by three of the authors in The Lancet in April 2004: MMR–responding to retraction. Andrew J Wakefield, Peter Harvey, John Linnell. The Lancet, Volume 363, Issue 9417, Pages 1327 – 1328, 17 April 2004
Scholary Articles Pertaining to Wakefield’s Research
The following peer-reviewed papers support Dr. Wakefield’s original findings:
Furlano R, Anthony A, Day R, Brown A, Mc Garvey L, Thomson M, et al. “Colonic CD8 and T cell filtration with epithelial damage in children with autism.” J Pediatr 2001;138:366-72.
Sabra S, Bellanti JA, Colon AR. “Ileal lymphoid hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children.” The Lancet 1998;352:234-5.
Torrente F., Machado N., Perez-Machado M., Furlano R., Thomson M., Davies S., Wakefield AJ, Walker-Smith JA, Murch SH. “Enteropathy with T cell infiltration and epithelial IgG deposition in autism.” Molecular Psychiatry. 2002;7:375-382.
Wakefield AJ, Anthony A, Murch SH, Thomson M, Montgomery SM, Davies S, Walker-Smith JA. “Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorder.” American Journal of Gastroenterology 2000;95:2285-2295.
Ashwood P, Anthony A, Pellicer AA, Torrente F, Wakefield AJ. “Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology.” Journal of Clinical Immunology, 2003;23:504-517.
The following peer-reviewed papers replicate Dr. Wakefield’s original findings:
Gonzalez, L. et al., “Endoscopic and Histological Characteristics of the Digestive Mucosa in Autistic Children with gastro-Intestinal Symptoms.” Arch Venez Pueric Pediatr, 2005;69:19-25.
Balzola, F., et al., “Panenteric IBD-like disease in a patient with regressive autism shown for the first time by wireless capsule enteroscopy: Another piece in the jig-saw of the gut-brain syndrome?” American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2005. 100(4): p. 979- 981.
Balzola F., et al., “Autistic enterocolitis: confirmation of a new inflammatory bowel disease in an Italian cohort of patients.”Gastroenterology 2005;128(Suppl. 2); A-303.
These are the articles on treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms in autistic children: Buie T, et al. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S19-29. Recommendations for evaluation and treatment of common gastrointestinal problems in children with ASDs.
Buie T, et al. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S1-18. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report.