Mothering Editor and Publisher Peggy O'Mara interviews Dr. Andrew Wakefield; coauthor of a 1998 study that suggested a link between Crohn's Disease and the Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR) vaccine in some children. He has been accused of incorrectly linking the MMR vaccine with autism. In this special interview, Wakefield discusses the current controversy surrounding his research.
You can also listen here. Subscribe to our podcast to receive all of our audio episodes as they become available.
Original Study by Dr. Wakefield et al. in 1998
Dr Andrew Wakefield et al. 1998 study in The Lancet:
Illeal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. AJ. Wakefield, SH Murch, A. Anthony, J. Linnell, DM Casson, M Malik, M Berelowitz, AP Dhillon, MA Thomson, P Harvey, A Valentine, SE Davies, JA Walker-Smith.
The Lancet, Volume 341, Number 9103. 8 February 1998.
Recent News on Dr. Wakefield's Research
Critique by Brain Deer on the Wakefield et al. study Jan 2011:
How the Case Against the MMR Vaccine was Fixed. Brian Deer. BMJ 2011; 342:c5347 doi: 10.1136/bmj.c5347. 5 January 2011
Response from the parents of children involved in the 1998 Wakefield et al. study Jan 2011:
Lancet 12 Parents Respond to Brian Deer BMJ GMC Allegations. Age of Autism. January 07, 2011
Further critique by Brain Deer on the Wakefield et al. study Jan 2011:
How the vaccine crisis was meant to make money. Brian Deer. BMJ 2011; 342:c5258 doi: 10.1136/bmj.c5258. 11 January 2011
Press Release from 13 Autism Advocacy Groups in support of Wakefield Jan 2011:
Autism Advocacy Organizations and Parent Groups Support Dr. Andrew Wakefield. Press Pelease. 12 January 2011
Information on Dr. Wakefield
Dr. Wakefield's book:
Callous Disregard: Autism and Vaccines: The Truth Behind the Tragedy. Andrew Wakefield. Skyhorse Publishing. May 24, 2010
In the Wake of Vaccines
A Child's Severe Reaction to a Vaccine Alters Life
Searching for Reasons Why: A Mother's Report on Autism
Fighting for Matthew: A Parent's Activism
Study Finds Genetic Link Between Autism, Vaccines
More Mothering Articles
Past Articles and Responses to Dr. Wakefield's Research
Sunday Times article calling the 1998 study into question in Feb 2004:
MMR Research Scandal. Brian Deer. The Sunday Times (London). 22 February 2004
Retraction of the study by ten of the authors in March 2004:
Retraction of an Interpretation. Simon H Murch, Andrew Anthony, David H Casson, Mohsin Malik, Mark Berelowitz, Amar P Dhillon, Michael A Thompson, Alan Valentine, Susan E Davies, John A Walker-Smith.
The Lancet, Volume 363, Issue 9411, Page 750. 6 March 2004
A statement by Dr. Andrew Wakefield in The Lancet in March 2004:
A Statement by Dr. Andrew Wakefield, The Lancet, Volume 363, Issue 9411, Pages 823 - 824, 6 March 2004
Response to the retraction by three of the authors in The Lancet in April 2004:
MMR--responding to retraction. Andrew J Wakefield, Peter Harvey, John Linnell. The Lancet, , Pages 1327 - 1328, 17 April 2004
Sunday Times article calling the study's research into question in Feb 2009:
MMR doctor Andrew Wakefield fixed data on autism. Brian Deer. The Sunday Times. 8 February 2009
Critique of Brian Deer's 2009 article plus Wakefield's response in Feb 2009:
The witch-hunt against Andrew Wakefield. Melanie Phillips. The Spectator. 11 February 2009
Fitness to Practice Hearing for Wakefield and two other study authors in Jan 2010:
Fitness to Practice Panel Hearing. General Medical Council. 28 January 2010
Editors of The Lancet retract 1998 article:
Retraction—Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. The Lancet. Published Online. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60175-4. 2 February 2010
Video interview with Dr. Andrew Wakefield April 2010:
Doctor Blamed for the MMR Scare Speaks Out. Goldenhawk Projects. April 13, 2010.
Scholary Articles Pertaining to Wakefield's Research
The following peer-reviewed papers support Dr. Wakefield's original findings:
Furlano R, Anthony A, Day R, Brown A, Mc Garvey L, Thomson M, et al. "Colonic CD8 and T cell filtration with epithelial damage in children with autism." J Pediatr 2001;138:366-72.
Sabra S, Bellanti JA, Colon AR. "Ileal lymphoid hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children." The Lancet 1998;352:234-5.
Torrente F., Machado N., Perez-Machado M., Furlano R., Thomson M., Davies S., Wakefield AJ, Walker-Smith JA, Murch SH. "Enteropathy with T cell infiltration and epithelial IgG deposition in autism." Molecular Psychiatry. 2002;7:375-382.
Wakefield AJ, Anthony A, Murch SH, Thomson M, Montgomery SM, Davies S, Walker-Smith JA. "Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorder." American Journal of Gastroenterology 2000;95:2285-2295.
Ashwood P, Anthony A, Pellicer AA, Torrente F, Wakefield AJ. "Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology." Journal of Clinical Immunology, 2003;23:504-517.
The following peer-reviewed papers replicate Dr. Wakefield's original findings:
Gonzalez, L. et al., "Endoscopic and Histological Characteristics of the Digestive Mucosa in Autistic Children with gastro-Intestinal Symptoms." Arch Venez Pueric Pediatr, 2005;69:19-25.
Balzola, F., et al., "Panenteric IBD-like disease in a patient with regressive autism shown for the first time by wireless capsule enteroscopy: Another piece in the jig-saw of the gut-brain syndrome?" American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2005. 100(4): p. 979- 981.
Balzola F., et al., "Autistic enterocolitis: confirmation of a new inflammatory bowel disease in an Italian cohort of patients."Gastroenterology 2005;128(Suppl. 2); A-303.
These are the articles on treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms in autistic children:
Buie T, et al. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S19-29. Recommendations for evaluation and treatment of common gastrointestinal problems in children with ASDs.
Buie T, et al. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S1-18. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report.