1 year old scratching and slapping...
I haven't dealt with the scratching but my 1 year old has been in a slapping phase for a while and it's rough. I feel so bummed about it sometimes because I feel like I've tried so hard to raise him so gently. A couple of weeks ago I broke down with massive self pity about how I managed to raise a 1 year old who hits but then it just hit me...don't deny who he is. Apparently, he has some energy inside that he wants to get out. I know he doesn't want to hurt me, why would he? So I decided to get out of my comfort zone of peace and gentle play and just totally rough house with him. This kind of play does not come easily to me but I think it's what he needed. He had so. much. fun!!!! Like, time of his life fun. The slapping has slowed way down. And when he does do it now, it's usually because we haven't been very active. I don't know if that's helpful at all but just thought I'd share.
When she was younger, holding her hand or offering her Pinchy (a fluffy blanket she likes to pluck) worked great, but she's more determined now, as toddlers tend to be. We've been having some good luck with, "No pinch. Pat momma/dadda/etc." Then we take her hand and gently pat us. "Good! Good gentle patting!" She isn't defaulting to patting yet, but she stops pinching and starts patting when reminded.
I think some babes need certain sensory stimulation, and as erin_brycesmom mentioned, if we can offer them an acceptable alternative, it can be easier on all of us.
(I'll be back in a few months when her gentle patting turns into slapping!)
Redirecting the behavior to something that doesn't leave welts is the extent of my intervention with her little quirks.
My daughter who is 2 can hit and scratch too. Usually I just calmly tell her that I want to be with her, but when she hits me, I feel owie and would like gentle touches. If she persists, I try distraction or move away. If she had played rough with a toy or with a book, the logical consequence is for it to be taken away, and the same goes for me. I try to never get angry or even really go that far. I just make it clear that there is a gentle way of playing. I also have to admit sometimes, I just get her to place catch or paint, or really do anything that requires her hands to be touching something else!