How about looking for recycled granite counters? I know, they do come from a quarry from the beginning and you did not want that, but since they were not quarried for you specifically, but for another family, and you are essentially just re-using I think it is about as green as you can become and still have a good quality counter. The reason being that a granite counter you generally just have to polish gently, and reseal, and you have a counter that looks and functions as a brand new one with a minimal amount of usage of new natural products.
Wood might be an alternative, if you can find old oak or other hardwood counters from a kitchen being remade. Though, personally, I find wood cumbersome to care for. When we got rid of our plastic counters, we went for butcherblock oak. Which is really, I think, one of the most beautiful counter materials you can choose. Problem is, it is not really suitable in a heavily used kitchen because of its ability to stain. A wet teacup or coffee pot placed too long on it without thinking....and there's water damage. That if you are lucky can be polished and then oiled to be invisible. Baking on wood? Wonderful idea, until you have a really sticky dough, of some reason decide to do something than clean-up and return next morning...even if oak does not scratch easily, there's still spots after you've cleared the counter that requires oiling. Wood simply takes a lot of extra care in a kitchen, which I don't think desirable.
As for concrete...beautiful! But if you truly want to be green I'm not sure it is the way to go. For one thing, concrete just like stone or wood is a natural resource taken from somewhere. Be it your back garden, or from the other side of the globe.
For a minimum maintenance, sure to last generations, counter I would choose recycled stone. Even if it is not the greenest alternative when new.