Not only were we notified (by e-mail from DD's teacher), the kids were individually told their scores by the classroom teacher. I thought that was very odd. I don't ever remember knowing my achievement test scores in the elementary grades. The state test here is scaled 1-5. We have not been given specific percentages, but told their scaled scores.
Well, our kids NCLB achievement tests are given on-line on the computer. The kids (a) know the score they need to achieve to pass and (b) get the score immediately when they are done. So, our son came home and said I got XYZ on the state reading test. I could then look up his raw score and see what XYZ meant.
So, to answer the OP: Our son knew his score, he also got his test scores told to us verbally at his spring parent-teacher conference, informally by his reading teacher ("he blew the test away!") and formally with his last report card. They don't start the state tests until 3rd grade in our state, so we don't have any state scores for dd, but we do have scores for her TAG testing.
I think it's probably an issue of who has the authority to print you a copy of the scores. Our school does MAP testing, and as a teacher, I don't ever see a hard copy score report; my access is through my personal account on the company's website. If a parent asked me about a child's scores, I would talk about them but would not print a copy of the report because I don't know if that's allowable. Our district office handles the management of all testing data, and I would probably have to talk to them. I would do that, however, and it sounds like that's where there was a communication lapse on the part of your child's teacher. The principal is likely in the same situation. It may take a while to get a response from the school during the summer; a lot of schools around here have their administrators on an 11-month contract, and even the ones who work year-round typically take vacation in July.
It could well be a matter of access. Some schools have one designated 'data' person and they have to go through them. Other schools let the teachers see things individually. Our schools, as I said above, can easily print out a copy for me if I want, so it's clearly allowed by their test data.