My first comment: There's no obligation to organize your house in the standard US manner. I understand that you're in the US, and you want to fully understand how houses in the US are organized. But you should also feel free to decide that you just don't like something, and to change it.
Also, no one's house looks as good as the magazines. :) It's fine to use magazines for inspiration, but don't feel like a failure if you don't achieve that standard.
I'd say that, yes, it's normal and fine to buy furniture to store things that you _need_. For example, you need at least some clothes, and many items of clothing aren't conveniently stored in closets, so it makes sense to buy storage furniture for them. Similarly, bookshelves, a file cabinet, a desk, and so on, are usually reasonable purchases for storage of a reasonable amount of stuff. I generally feel that most objects should be stored in a specific place designated for that purpose.
Of course, "reasonable amount of stuff" is hard to judge without experience - it's entirely possible that your husband has too much stuff. People do frequently buy storage furniture to store things that they'd be better off getting rid of.
For the specific items that you named:
- A dresser, also known as a chest of drawers, a chest, or a bureau, is a piece of furniture with several drawers in it, generally intended for storing clothing, usually kept in the bedroom. I'd say that most people have these. It's not unusual for each person to have their own, for their own exclusive use, though in an apartment you may not have space for this. (We have one wide one with two columns of drawers; I use one side and he uses the other.)
- An armoire, also known as a wardrobe, is also intended for storing clothes and is also usually in a bedroom. It's usually a tall cabinet intended for hanging clothes, and is therefore effectively the same as a closet. This is much, much less commonly used than a dresser, and if you have closets, you probably don't need one. (Edited to add: Oh, yes, I forgot the use of armoires for television/video/stereo gear. That is much more common.)
- A hutch is usually used for storing dishes and other tableware, and is often stored in the dining room. It might also be used for storing breakable decorated objects such as fancy tableware, fragile figurines, and so on. As a minimalist, I think that you don't need one of these - having so many dishes that you have to store lots of them outside the kitchen is, IMO, not a very minimalist strategy.
For general advice on housekeeping, I'd suggest the book _Home Comforts_ by Cheryl Mendelson, a very long and thorough book on housekeeping. On the subject of bedrooms, for example, the book tells you exactly what furniture the author considers necesssary for a bedroom, and what additional furniture might also be useful. She recommends types of bedding and how and how often to clean it. She suggests daily and weekly tasks for cleaning and maintaining the bedroom. And she expresses her opinions on issues of privacy, the appropriate uses of a bedroom, the special case of the one-room apartment where the bedroom is shared with the living room, and so on. She's _detailed_.
But I want to emphasize that her housekeeping standards are very high. The author may tell you to do something once a week, and you might find that people normally do that once month, or once a year, or never. But at least the book will let you know that that particular housekeeping task exists, and give you a good idea of how to do it. This gives you a starting point for asking other people about their usual practices.