I have two dogs right now. Vanity is 13, she is our house dog, she is a ridgeback boxer from Hawaii, and she has earned her bed by the fireplace. In her younger years she spent enough time on the farm - she is amazing with stock, in that she is safe around bouncing baby lambs (ignores them) and just stays clear out of any pastures or fences- she ignores the pultry and generally does not want anything to do with any of the stock at all. She will be introduced to the LGD, but they will not interact much.
Now Gretta is our farm dog. She is an aussie/german shepard mix. She has a crate in both the house and in the barn. She is sleeping in the house tonight, but if she slept in the barn she would not bat an eye. She is too young and inexperienced to be trusted unsupervised with the stock yet. Once dogs get bad habits around stock it is hard to break. She is working with me to help with chores, she helps push and drive animals for me- and will continue working as a herding and stock dog. She will work with the LGD, and since she is a puppy, they will be introduced and will work out their relationship. Gretta is with the herd and the chickens and the cows, but does not live with them, she lives with us. She is a people minded dog. (meaning she works thinking about what I want her to do- and enjoys her people more than her work)
Strange dogs are what a LGD would take issue with, they are mild and fine with their own fellow farm dogs, it is strange dogs they will not tolerate whatsoever. And their fellow farm dogs will abide by their rules of treating the herd correctly or be corrected by the LGD.
shelter for the LGD- they do not leave their herd. Where their herd is, they are. They can not protect their herd if they are put up etc. And they take their job very seriously, so they do not want to be separated from their herd. Currently the dog I hope to get lives outside 24-7 with his herd, they have a wind/rain break - but he does not sleep in it, he sleeps out in the open guarding his herd. Their coat is made for the elements. Now, at my house, my goats are milking goats, so they do not sleep outside at night. They sleep in a barn at my house, everything is locked up at night here. So, when the goats come in for milking at night, the LGD will come in with them, and he will sleep in the goat stall with his herd.
LGD are used for sheep more than anything and no shelter is provided for sheep or LGD on the range, their coat is their shelter for both the sheep and dogs
hope that helps :) I am learning myself :)