my son will be 4 this august.... and honestly i have no idea what's "normal." for now i'm not really actively *teaching* him... i just share info with him here and there, and let him explore... read to him... let him watch Blue's Clues and Dora the Explorer... here's what he can do:
he only recently started going peepies and poopies in the potty all the time (which i'm expecting will change back after the new baby's born)
he can count to fourteen (and then begins "eleventeen, fourfifteen...")
he can recognize all colors and can pick them from a group
he can recognize / name: trapezoid, circle, triangle, rectangle, square, diamond, star, spiral and rhombus
he can draw circles, triangles, trapezoids and rectangles, along with simple pictures (of just about anything ~ earlier he drew me stuck under a toy.
). by "simple" i mean made of simple shapes (he draws pretty complex pictures with huge stories behind them).
he has a huge vocabulary and talks *constantly*.
he can "write" the capital letters A, H, I, L, C, E, M, W, N and T, and the numbers 1 and 4 (although currently all of his 4's come out backward).
he's currently learning the sounds that different letters make. he knows easy ones, like that "B" says "buh" and "T" says "tuh" and "S" says "ssss" but he's still working on most of them. he is, however, very interested and picks them up very quickly. he can recognize all the letters of the alphabet, and numbers up to 10.
he knows his name starts with the letter M (and for awhile, insisted that every word he saw that started with an "M" was his name and therefore whatever the word was on was his :LOL).
he can count and group objects by numbers, and is pretty good with same/different *but* still has issues sometimes with figuring out what's similar to one another, what things go together, etc.
he's big on pretend play and loves to pretend he's a bug / princess / Bob the Builder / Shrek / a farmer / other characters from his books. i don't know if this is a stage of development as much as just a personality trait.
he mostly dresses himself but still needs help with buttons, and starting zippers. he recently figured out how to put on his overalls and they became his favorite article of clothing for a week straight as he proudly put them on and took them off and put them on...
he can climb, jump, balance on one foot, skip / gallop, and contort himself in positions that would make any yogi master jealous.
he has the majority of his favorite books memorized (i hear him in his bedroom often, "reading" his books, and am consistently astounded at how much he has stored in that fuzzy little head of his...)
he knows some spanish (although has forgotten the sign language + italian i taught him
but i guess the lack of practice was really my fault) and picks up new spanish (and english) vocab quickly.
i think kids will learn whatever they're exposed to on a regular basis. like, he also knows the names of garden tools and flowers and herbs, and can name just about every fruit and vegetable in the market, because i involve him in what i do. i've always read to him, since before he was born. he knows the names of his favorite songs (and can sing them quite well), because we tell them to him and let music be a huge part of his life. i just got some flashcards ~ one phonics, one spanish / english vocab ~ to work with him on, just because i thought they'd be kind of fun for us to play with together. even though the phonics cards say "ages 5-7" i really think he's ready for them... which i think is the key. just pay attention to your child's queues and continue to present developmentally appropriate activities and opportunities for learning. take him to the library and let him pick out books to read... take him to the park and let him play, and then walk around and point out flowers, different grasses, birds, etc. count stairs. count cookies. make funny faces on sandwiches and then use them to discuss emotions. draw soap pictures in the bath.
kids are like sponges: they will soak up any new information they're presented with.