References: Nutritional Benefits
See also Breastmilk Composition
Ahn CH, MacLean WC Jr. Growth of the exclusively breast-fed infant. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Feb;33(2):183-92.
Briend A, Wojtyniak B and Rowland MG. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988 Mar 26;296(6626):879-82.
Casey CE, Neville MC, Hambidge KM. Studies in human lactation: secretion of zinc, copper, and manganese in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1989 May;49(5):773-85.
Dewey KG, Finley DA, Lonnerdal B. Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7-20 months). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1984 Nov;3(5):713-20.
Dewey KG. Nutrition, Growth, and Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Infant. Pediatric Clinics of North American. February 2001;48(1).
Grummer-Strawn LM. Does prolonged breast-feeding impair child growth? A critical review. Pediatrics. 1993;91:766-771.
Hamosh M, Dewey, Garza C, et al: Nutrition During Lactation. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1991. This book is available free from the HRSA Information Center (look under Nutrition publications).
Jelliffe DB and Jelliffe EF. The volume and composition of human milk in poorly nourished communities. A review. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Mar;31(3):492-515.
Karra MV, Udipi SA, Kirksey A, and Roepke JL. Changes in specific nutrients in breast milk during extended lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986; 43: 495-503.
Mandel D, Lubetzky R, Dollberg S, Barak S, Mimouni FB. Fat and Energy Contents of Expressed Human Breast Milk in Prolonged Lactation. Pediatrics. 2005 Sept; 116(3):e432-e435.
Onyango, Adelheid W., Receveur, Olivier and Esrey, Steven A. The contribution of breast milk to toddler diets in western Kenya. Bull World Health Organ, 2002, vol.80 no.4. ISSN 0042-9686.
Persson V, Greiner T, Islam S, and Gebre-Medhin M. The Helen Keller international food-frequency method underestimates vitamin A intake where sustained breastfeeding is common. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol.19 no.4. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 1998.
Rohde JE. Breastfeeding beyond twelve months. Lancet. 1988 Oct 29;2(8618):1016.
Shattock FM, Stephens AJ. Letter: Duration of breast-feeding. Lancet. 1975 Jan 11;1(7898):113-4.
Tangermann RH, et al. Breastfeeding beyond twelve months. Lancet. 1988 Oct 29;2(8618):1016.
Underwood BA. Weaning practices in deprived environments: the weaning dilemma. Pediatrics. 1985 Jan;75(1 Pt 2):194-8.
UNICEF/Wellstart: Promoting Breastfeeding in Health Facilities: A short course for Administrators and Policy Makers; WHO/CDR 93.4.
Victora CG, et al. Is prolonged breastfeeding associated with malnutrition? Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Feb;39(2):307-14.
Whitehead RG. The human weaning process. Pediatrics. 1985 Jan;75(1 Pt 2):189-93.
[top] References: Immunological Benefits
Immune factors in human milk @
Briend A, Wojtyniak B and Rowland MG. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988 Mar 26;296(6626):879-82.
Goldman AS et al. Immunologic components in human milk during weaning. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983 Jan;72(1):133-4.
Goldman AS, Goldblum RM, Garza C. Immunologic components in human milk during the second year of lactation. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983 May;72(3):461-2.
Gulick EE. The effects of breastfeeding on toddler health. Pediatr Nurs. 1986 Jan-Feb;12(1):51-4.
Hamosh M. Bioactive factors in human milk. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001 Feb;48(1):69-86.
Hamosh M, Dewey, Garza C, et al: Nutrition During Lactation. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1991, pp. 133-140. This book is available free from the HRSA Information Center (look under Nutrition publications).
Lawrence R and Lawrence R. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession, 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1999, p. 159-195. See particularly Table 5-2 on p. 169: "Concentration of immunologic components in human milk collected during second year of lactation"
Palti H, Mansbach I, Pridan H, Adler B, Palti Z. Episodes of illness in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants in Jerusalem. Isr J Med Sci 1984 May;20(5):395-9.
[top] References: Allergies
Halken S, Host A, Hansen LG, Osterballe O. Effect of an allergy prevention programme on incidence of atopic symptoms in infancy. A prospective study of 159 "high-risk" infants. Allergy 1992 Oct;47(5):545-53.
Hanson LA, Korotkova M, Telemo E. Breast-feeding, infant formulas, and the immune system. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Jun;90(6 Suppl 3):59-63.
Marini A, Agosti M, Motta G, Mosca F. Effects of a dietary and environmental prevention programme on the incidence of allergic symptoms in high atopic risk infants: three years' followup. Acta Pædiatr 1996;Suppl 414 vol 85:1-19.
Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M. Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. Lancet 1995;346:1065-69.
Savilahti E, et al. Prolonged exclusive breast feeding and heredity as determinants in infantile atopy. Arch Dis Child. 1987 Mar;62(3):269-73.
[top] References: Intelligence
Breastfeeding and Cognitive Function Bibliography by Marsha Walker,RN,IBCLC
Anderson GJ, Connor WE, Corliss JD. Docosohexaenoic acid is the preferred dietary n-3 fatty acid for the development of the brain and retina. Pediatr Res 1990;27:87-97.
Anderson JW. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, Oct; 70(4): 525-35.
Andraca I, Uauy R. Breastfeeding for optimal mental development. Simopoulos AP, Dutra de Oliveira JE, Desai ID (eds): Behavioral and Metabolic Aspects of Breastfeeding. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 1995;78:1-27.
Bauer G et al. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of three-year-old children. Psychological Reports 1991; 68:1218.
Crawford MA. The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(suppl):703S-10S.
Elwood PC, Pickering J, Gallacher JE, Hughes J, Davies D. Long term effect of breast feeding: cognitive function in the Caerphilly cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Feb;59(2):130-3.
Florey C Du V, Leech AM, Blackhall A. Infant feeding and mental and motor development at 18 months of age in first born singletons. Int J Epidem 1995;24 (Suppl 1):S21-6.
Gordon N. Nutrition and cognitive function. Brain and Development 1997;19:165-70.
Greene LC, Lucas A, Livingstone BE, Harland PSEG, Baker BA. Relationship between early diet and subsequent cognitive performance during adolescence. Biochem Soc Trans 1995;23:376S.
Horwood LJ, Darlow BA, Mogridge N. Breast milk feeding and cognitive ability at 7-8 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2001 Jan;84(1):F23-7.
Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;101(1):E9.
Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Lister G, Leeson-Payne C. Breastmilk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet 1992;339:261-4.
Makrides M, Neumann MA, Byard RW, Simmer K, Gibson RA. Fatty acid composition of brain, retina and erythrocytes in breast and formula fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:189-94.
Morley R, Cole TJ, Powell R, Lucas A. Mother's choice to provide breast milk and developmental outcome. Arch Dis Child. 1988 Nov;63(11):1382-5.
Morrow-Tlucak M, Haude RH, Ernhart CB. Breastfeeding and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life. Soc Sci Med. 1988;26(6):635-9.
Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. The Association Between Duration of Breastfeeding and Adult Intelligence. JAMA. 2002;287:2365-2371.
Nettleton JA. Are n-3 fatty acids essential nutrients for fetal and infant development. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:58-64.
Neuringer M, Connor WE, Lin DS, Barstad L, Luck S. Biochemical and functional effects of prenatal and postnatal fatty acid deficiency on retina and brain in rhesus monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sc USA 1986;83:4021-5.
Niemelä A, Järvenpää A-L. Is breastfeeding beneficial and maternal smoking harmful to the cognitive development of children? Acta Pædiatr 1996;85:1202-6.
Oddy WH, et al. Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003 Jan;17(1):81-90.
Paine BJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA. Duration of breastfeeding and Bayley's mental developmental Index at 1 year of age. J Paediatr Child Health 1999;35:82-5.
Pollock JI. Longterm associations with infant feeding in a clinically advantaged population of babies. Dev Med Child Neur 1994;36:429-40.
Richards M, Hardy R, Wadsworth ME. Long-term effects of breast-feeding in a national birth cohort: educational attainment and midlife cognitive function. Public Health Nutr. 2002 Oct;5(5):631-5.
Riva E, Agostoni C, Biasucci G, Trojan S, Luotti D, Fiori L, et al. Early breastfeeding is linked to higher intelligence quotient scores in dietary treated phenylketonuric children. Acta Pædiatr 1996;85:56-8.
Rodgers B. Feeding in infancy and later ability and attainment: a longitudinal study. Devel Med Child Neurol 1978;20:421-6.
Rogan WJ, Gladen BC. Breastfeeding and cognitive development. Early Hum Dev 1993;31:181-93.
Silver LB, Levinson RB, Laskin CR, Pilot LJ. Learning disabilities as a probable consequence of using chloride-deficient infant formula. J Pediatr 1989;115:97-9
Taylor B, Wadsworth J. Breastfeeding and child development at five years. Dev Med Child Neurol 1984;26:73-80.
Temboury MC, Otero A, Polanco I, Arribas E. Influence of breastfeeding on the infant's intellectual development. J Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;18:32-36.
Wang YS, Wu SY. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on development and incidence of infection in infants. JHL 1996;12:27-30.
Willoughby A, Moss HA, Hubbard VS, Bercu BB, Graubard BI, Vietze PM, et al. Developmental outcome in children exposed to chloride deficient formula. Pediatrics 1987;79:851-7.
Wing CS. Defective infant formulas and expressive language problems: a case study. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools 1990;21:22-7.
[top] References: Social Adjustment
Baldwin, EN. Extended Breastfeeding and the Law. Mothering 1993 (Spring);66:88.
Baumgartner C. Psychomotor and Social Development of Breast Fed and Bottle Fed babies During their First year of Life. Acta Paediatrica Hungarica, 1984.
Ferguson DM et al. Breastfeeding and subsequent social adjustment in six- to eight-year-old children. J Child Psychol Psychiatr Allied Discip 1987; 28:378-86.
Waletzky LR. Breastfeeding and weaning. Some psychological considerations. Prim Care. 1979 Jun;6(2):341-55.
[top] References: Breastfeeding as the Norm
American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics. Feb 2005;115(2): 496-50.
The American Academy of Family Physicians. Position Paper on Breastfeeding. 2001.
Dettwyler KA. A Natural Age of Weaning.
Dettwyler KA."A Time to Wean" from Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives, 1995.
Novello A, MD, US Surgeon General, "You Can Eat Healthy," Parade Magazine (11 Nov 1990): 5.
World Health Organization. Global strategy on infant and young child feeding. 16 April 2002.
World Health Organization. Innocenti Declaration: World Declaration and
Plan of Action for Nutrition. Rome, December 1992.
[top] References: Mother's Fertility
The Lactational Amenorrhea Method of birth control
Badroui MHH, Hefnawi F. Ovarian function during lactation. In: Hafez ESE, ed. Human Ovulation. Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland Biomedical, 1979: 233-41.
Diaz S, Aravena R, Cardenas H, Casado ME, Miranda P, Schiappacasse V, Croxatto HB. Contraceptive efficacy of lactational amenorrhea in urban Chilean women. Contraception. 1991 Apr;43(4):335-52.
Diaz S, Peralta O, Juez G, Salvatierra AM, Casado ME, Duran E, Croxatto HB. Fertility regulation in nursing women: I. The probability of conception in full nursing women living in an urban setting. J Biosoc Sci. 1982 Jul;14(3):329-41.
Elias,M.F. "Nursing Practices and Lactation Amenorrhoea." Journal of Biosco Sci, 1968.
Kennedy KI, Visness CM. Contraceptive efficacy of lactational amenorrhoea. Lancet. 1992 Jan 25;339(8787):227-30.
Lewis PR, Brown JB, Renfree MB, Short RV. The resumption of ovulation and menstruation in a well-nourished population of women breastfeeding for an extended period of time. Fertil Steril. 1991 Mar;55(3):529-36.
Rolland R: Bibliography (with review) on contraceptive effects of breastfeeding. Biblio Reprod 1976;28:1-4, 93.
Short RV, Lewis PR, Renfree MB, Shaw G. Contraceptive effects of extended lactational amenorrhoea: beyond the Bellagio Consensus. Lancet. 1991 Mar 23;337(8743):715-7.
Simpson-Hebert M, Huffman SL. The contraceptive effect of breastfeeding. Stud Fam Plann 1981;12:125-33.
Van Ginnekin JK. Prolonged breastfeeding as a birth spacing method. Stud Fam Plann 1974;5:201-6.
[top] References: Less Ovarian Cancer
Gwinn ML, Lee NC, Rhodes PH, Layde PM, Rubin GL. Pregnancy, breastfeeding and oral contraceptives and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 1990;43:559-68.
Hartge P, Schiffman MH, Hoover R, McGowan L, Lesher L, Norris HJ. A case control study of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:10-6.
Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB, and the WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. Lactation and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. International J Epidemiol 1993;22:192-7.
Schneider AP. Risk factor for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med. 1987 Aug 20;317(8):508-9.
[top] References: Less Uterine Cancer
Brock KE et al. Sexual, reproductive and contraceptive risk factors for carcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix in Sydney. Med J Aust. 1989 Feb 6;150(3):125-30.
[top] References: Less Endometrial Cancer
Petterson B, Hans-Olov A, Berström R, Johansson EDB. Menstruation span-a time-limited risk factor for endometrial carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986;65:247-55.
Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB, and the WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. Prolonged Lactation and endometrial cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1995;24:499-503.
[top] References: Less Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis: Reduced risk with nursing? by Debbi Donovan, IBCLC
Osteoporosis by Kathryn Orlinsky, PhD
See Calcium for more information and references.
[top] References: Less Rheumatoid Arthritis
Karlson EW, Mandl LA, Hankinson SE, Grodstein F. Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Results from the Nurses' Health Study. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Nov;50(11):3458-67.
[top] References: Less Breast Cancer (breastfed as child)
Barba M, et al. Premenopausal women who were heavier than average at birth or had not been breastfed as infants appear to be at increased risk for developing breast cancer. Reported at the American Association for Cancer Research 2005 annual meeting in Anaheim, CA.
Freudenheim JL et al. Exposure to breastmilk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology. 1994 May;5(3):324-31.
References: Less Breast Cancer (mother)
Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet. 2002 Jul 20; 360(9328): 187-95.
Furberg H, Newman B, Moorman P, Millikan R. Lactation and breast cancer risk. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28:396-402.
Ing R, Ho JHC, Petrakis NL. Unilateral breastfeeding and breast cancer. Lancet July 16, 1997;124-27.
Jernstrom H, et al. Breast-feeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 21;96(14):1094-8.
Layde PM, Webster LA, Baughman AL, Wingo PA, Rubin GL, Ory HW and the cancer and steroid hormone study group. The independent associations of parity, age at first full term pregnancy, and duration of breastfeeding with the risk of breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 1989;42:963-73.
Lee SY, Kim MT, Kim SW, Song MS, Yoon SJ. Effect of lifetime lactation on breast cancer risk: A Korean Women's Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2003 Jun 20;105(3):390-3.
McTiernan A, Thomas DB. Evidence for a protective effect of lactation on risk of breast cancer in young women. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:353-74.
Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Clapp RW, et al. Lactation and a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. N Eng J Med 1994;330:81-7
Reuter KL, Baker SP, Krolikowski FJ. Risk factors for breast cancer in women undergoing mammography. Am J Radiol 1992;158:273-8.
Romieu I, Hernández-Avila M, Lazcano E, Lopez L, Romero-Jaime R. Breast cancer and lactation history in Mexican women. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:543-52.
Siskind V, Schofield F, Rice D, Bain C. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: results from an Australian case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:229-36.
Tao S-C, Yu MC, Ross RK, Xiu K-W. Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women of Beijing. Int J Cancer 1988;42:495-98.
United Kingdom National Case-Control Study Group. Breastfeeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. Br Med J 1993;307:17-20.
Yoo K-Y, Tajima K, Kuroishi T, Hirose K, Yoshida M, Miura S, Murai H. Independent protective effect of lactation against breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:726-33.
Yuan J-M, Yu MC, Ross RK, Gao Y-T, Henderson BE. Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women in Shanghai. Cancer Res 1988;58:99-104.
Zheng T et al. Lactation and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Connecticut. Br J Cancer 2001 Jun;84(11):1472-6.
Zheng T et al. Lactation reduces breast cancer risk in Shandong Province, China. Am J Epidemiol 2000 Dec 15;152(12):1129-35.
[top] References: Diabetes - Decreased Insulin Requirements
Davies HA et al. Insulin requirements of diabetic women who breast feed. BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):1357-8.
[top] References: Mother's Weight loss
Butte NF, Garza C. Anthropometry in the appraisal of lactation performance among well-nourished women. pp. 61-67 in M Hamish and AS Goldman, eds Human Lactation 2: Maternal and Environmental Factors. Plenum Press, New York.
Butte NF, Garza C, Stuff JE, Smith EO, Nichols BL. Effect of maternal diet and body composition on lactational performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Feb;39(2):296-306.
Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA. Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:162-6.
Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Dewey KG. Lactation and postpartum weight loss. FASEB J 1990;4:362 (abstract).
Heinig MJ et al. Lactation and postpartum weight loss. Mechanisms Regulating Latation and Infant Nutrient Utilization 1992;30:397-400.
Kramer FM et al. Breast-feeding reduces maternal lower-body fat. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993 Apr;93(4):429-33.
Manning-Dalton C, Allen LH. The effects of lactation on energy and protein consumption, postpartum weight change and body composition of well nourished North American women. Nutr Res 1983;3:293-308.
Ohlin A, Rossner S. Maternal body weight development after pregnancy. Int J Obes 1990 Feb;14(2):159-73.