When researching polio, its hard to know where to start, so here are some places to begin.
It looks old, but its important.
1: Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Dec;110(6):672-92.
The epidemiology of poliomyelitis: enigmas surrounding its appearance,
epidemicity, and disappearance.
Nathanson N, Martin JR.
PIP: The emergence of a debate in the US regarding poliomyelitis immunization
practices makes it important to examine unresolved issues about the epidemiology of this disease. The literature suggests that poliomyelitis initially appears as a disease of preschool children, but then there is a trend toward increasing age of cases. Age differences in the case: infection ratio do not appear to have a consistent, predictable impact on overall incidence. The appearance of epidemic poliomyelitis is assumed to have resulted from a reduction in levels of maternal antibodies as booster reinfections became less common, a reduction in the frequency of antibody levels sufficient to produce cross-protection between virus types, and an increase in the average age of primary infections. The relative importance of virus virulence and of elevated infection rate in the production of epidemics remains unknown. The use of poliovirus vaccine in the US has reduced paralytic disease from an annual incidence of about 10,000 cases to 10 cases. The eradication of poliomyelitis in spite of the fact that no more than 90% of US children have been reached indicates that either vaccine virus has spread to the unimmunized or a herd immunity effect is operating and the resultant disappearance of wild poliovirus prevents exposure of the unimmunized.
The unexpected eradication of natural poliomyelitis in the US has raised the problem of vaccine-associated disease when oral vaccine is used. Since oral poliovirus vaccine appears to have provided protection through herd immunity, any change in immunization practices that might increase the exposure of susceptibles should be undertaken with great caution. Evidence of repeated importations of wild poliovirus emphasizes this concern. If inactivated vaccine is seriously considered for primary immunization, it should be followed by reimmunization with oral vaccine.
Publication Types:Review PMID: 400274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Other books that are keys to the puzzle:
One of the early experts on polio was Dr John R. Paul. His book "A History of Poliomyelitis" was paid for and funded by all the vaccine manufacturers so you have to be circumspect in what you believe, and his comments on SV40 are predictable and laughable, but he leaves out a huge amount of very relevant information.
For those with indepth access to medical literature, access and get full copies here are some that you need to get full copies of EVERYTHING ever published in the medical literature by H. V. Wyatt. He fills in some considerable gaps which John Paul misses out.
If you stick his name in pubmed you will come up with about 80 something citations but not all are related to polio. Get as many as you can and track down interesting sideways evidence.
Other historical works you need to track down are any medical papers by:
W. Lyoyd Aycock
Ralph R. Scobey
If any of you have access to "Physiological Investigations into the action of DDT." by G. W. Van Der Wiel Published in Arnhem 1949, you will see on pg 49, that tbe brain and spinal cord are histologically affected by DDT.
Do a related search on Paris Green, (which might possibly be responsible for the Stockholm epidemic in 1887, but paris green (copper arsenate) was by and large superceded by arsenate of lead in 1892. But from there came a whole raft of highly toxic sprays that started to be used from 1900 worldwide.... Paris green was first used in USA in 1867 but found to be unstable. Several substitutes were tested including one called London Purple (Calcium Arsenite) , but with little improvement until USA introduced lead arsenate as a widespread spray in 1893.
In this country, they were introduced in 1900, to try to control codlin moth, though it took a while to be widely used and we had our first major epidemic in 1916.
The theory much written about at the time questioning the role of these compounds in weakening the inate immune system and destroying the gut cells thereby making people more susceptible, is only part of the issue. But research it.
One site is www.geocities.com/harpub/pol_all.htm
Scientists know well what arsenate of lead does. It is toxic, an irritant, and irritates and damages the intestinal epithelial cells which results in diarrhoea and vomitting, which is described by Sir Francis Walshe in "diseases of the Nervous System" 9th Edition, page 157:
|The child may be sick once ot twice only, usually after food, and not in the persistent and projectile fashion so often seen in cerebrospinal fever. Photophobia and profuse sweating are common and while some diarrohea may occur, constipation is more likely."
Having made this comment though, few thought to question why it was that epidemic polio was usually a summer/late summer disorder, precisely when sprayed fruit was consumed. And in those days it was never washed or peeled, because these sprays were assumed to be safe.
Ironically, Holland was the only country advised to peel and thoroughly wash sprayed fruit, and statistics show that Holland had the lowest incidence of poliomyelitis in the world.
Even in this country, orchards established at those times are considered to be long term, highly toxic sites, considered a danger to health.
Toxic compounds that interfere with the conduction of nerve impulses were first synthesized by Zeidler in 1874, if that is of any help. Poliomyelitis was first known in its epidemic form in 1887, though Heine wrote his classical account of the disease in 1840.
There are many forms of toxin, and food storage is a major issue with toxins as anyone with history as a bent will know. There are many sorts of toxins, not just the botulism types, but Aflatoxins, many fruit toxins... the list is quite long, and all have their "place" as co-factors.
From there you need to look at the role of the following in the conversion of endemic immunity to epidemic outbreaks.
1) The rise... and role of tonsillectomy surgery in the increase of polio.
2) The role of formula in breaking a "circle" of protection that breastmilk gave babies. Breastmilk has non-specific powerful interference with not just the three polio viruses but all pathogens which are neuro and gut trophic. This enabled babies to process those pathogens, and crawl around, get dirty and yet be protected to a significant degree from many potentially dangerous pathogens.
The rise of the formula industry and paediatricians who believed that an amount in a bottle was better than a non-measurable tit, have a huge amount to answer for.
Next articles to look for.
Anything in the medical journals by Dr Herbert Ratner (JAMA, Illinois medical journal) and Dr Frederick Klenner.(often Tri state Med J.)
You need to research the roles of injections, such as not just early vaccines, but also anaesthetics and other injections, which cause provocation polio in the limb or place in which the needle went.
There were even cases of paralysis in the jaw after a dental anaesthesia...
To understand this, you have to have a broad understanding of the WAY in which poliomyelitis actually works, and unfortunately conventional medicine didn't and still doesn't understand how polioviruses cause infection.
Ironically a very helpful article is Science, Volume 195 4 March 1977 called "Control of Influenza and poliomyeoitis with Killed Virus vaccines" by Jonas Salk and Darrell Salk.
In attempting to defend himself, he shoots the whole issue in the foot.
Another useful article is Review of Infectious Diseases, Volume 2, no 3, March - April 1980 called "Eradication of Polimyelitis in United States: A commentary on the Salk Reviews."
This is where you discover how FEW people had been vaccinated against polio by 1958.
There are so many articles I could suggest, but I'd be here forever listing them.
HOWEVER, one of the great unknowns, even admitted by experts was HOW the disease affected the body and this is where Sister Kenny comes in, because she alone understood it, and her work was proven correct in some medical reviews which she mentions in her books, but which I can't access.
The books you need to read to understand WHAT polio is about are these:
"The Kenny Concept of Infantile Paralysis and its treatment" By Dr John. F. Pohl, Bruce Publishing Company, Menneapolis, 1943.
Two books by Sister Kenny = "And they shall Walk" and "My battle and Victory".
Other books: "Mind over Muscle Surviving Polio in New Zealand" Karen Butterworth and Jean Ross.
"Over my dead body" Jean Opie
"Diet Prevents Polio" Dr Benjamin P Sandler, Lee Foundation,1951
"Low Blood sugar and You" by Drs Carlton Frederick and Herman Goodman
Three more modern ones:
Polio, the american Story by Oshinsky.
The Polio Paradox by Richard L Bruno
(and if you've read all the others, you will be able to fill in some of the gaps he couldn't
The Virus and the VAccine by Debbi Bookchin and Jim Schumacher.
If you do that diligently and follow up other medical article leads laterally, particularly from Wyatt, Scobey, Rattner, Klenner ... and best
still, if you can persuade the AMA to put back into all libraries the monthly Polio Unit Surveillance bulletins, you should be able to work out just what you were not told.