Torah does mean the first five books, but it can also mean more.
A sefer Torah is the scroll containing the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, the so-called Five Books of Moses. A bound book with just those five is called a Chumash (which means "five").
The Hebrew Bible is sometimes referred to by its acronym, the Tanach, which stands for Torah, Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings, which does include all the poetry!
Christians believe that the Hebrew Bible (aka "Old Testament") is a sacred text.
Torah can also mean the "oral Torah". The Talmud, which consists of the Mishnah (in Hebrew, codified in roughly 220 of the present era) and the Gemarra (in Aramaic, codified maybe 500?) is a written-down version of the oral Torah, the traditions about how to interpret the Torah.
Christians do not, in general, follow the Talmud. The early Church Fathers (I'm thinking for example, St. Augustine) told them not to follow mitzvot (commandments). (The whole purpose of the Talmud and its commentaries is to help us figure out how to follow God's commandments in the Torah.) Puritans and some other Christian traditions have historically taken on Jewish festivals and customs as a way of getting closer to Jesus.
Kabbalah means "reception" or "tradition" and is the term used for Jewish mystical tradition. Mysticism exists in every religious tradition, it's whatever method that religion has for intentionally seeking intense religious experience. Kabbalah relies heavily on interpretation of Torah--down to the very letters!--for those experiences. A lot of esoteric Kabbalistic practices have been integrated into mainstream Judaism. (For example, the psalms we recite on Friday evening before the service, called Kabbalat Shabbat, were part of a kabbalistic practice and are now normative.)