I second having a vet check on whether the cat has a microchip. And checking tax records is a great idea, as well.
A few more ideas (which may or may not make sense, depending on the size/composition of the community you live in--I live in a fairly small community, some of these may not make any sense at all in someplace like NYC):
Post on an online forum specific to your community. (We have one called Front Porch Forum which is by town/neighborhood, so it's fairly hyper-local--people frequently post about lost and found pets, and I could see something like "do you know the family that used to live at XX Crescent Circle in 2010--I think I may have found their cat" getting a response--at least somebody who knows the family's names.)
Ask current owner/residents of the house who owned it previously. (I'm thinking this would be a multi-step ask, as current renters might have to ask their landlord, who might know the name of a previous owner, who could give you the family names. They might or might not have current contact info as well--though, whether they'd give it you, I don't know.)
Ask other neighbors if they know the names of the family--if so, this would give you a starting point to google them.
Call around to local vets and see if any of them recognize the cat's description or have that address on file for someone. They might not give you the name either, but if they found a match might call the family and give them your information.
Hope you have success!
37, hoping to have a new member of the family in 2016, to join my queer clan: Me
, Things 1&2
, my long-distance KD/cheerleader (the guy who's been telling everyone what a great mom I'm going to be)
, and the rest of the superheroes and sidekicks