I was not diabetic, and, frankly, I am stumped as to how I spawned this 11 pound baby girl. I have done a bit of research and can tell you my experience with having a "big baby". I am 5' 4", but my 76 year old father weighed ten and a half pounds when he was born in the twenties (which was considered huge back then). Babies over 4500 grams (around nine pounds, 14 ounces) are considered to have "macrosomia" (you can do a www.google.com
for dozens of hits on this for more information).
What I found on the internet and baby books is that there is an increased risk of mental retardation or the baby being stillborn if it is really big. If the baby is hypoglocemic, it can have seizures and other problems. There is an increased risk of having a c-section, which, I don't have to tell you, is no picnic. Of course, lots of women give birth naturally to big babies... I just wasn't one of the lucky ones.
First, I had planned a lovely natural birth in an alternative birthing center with CNMs. To make a long story short, my bag of waters broke but no contractions for 14 hours and they induced me, with EFMs, IVs, the regular maternity ward, etc. I labored with pit and cervidil for sixty hours, but stuck at nine centimeters for five hours. They c-sectioned me for "failure to progress." My childbirth educator thinks I was at ten centimeters (since they first told me I was at ten, then told me no, it was nine) but that I needed more than ten for the baby so they thought they measured wrong. I am bitter about all that, but I digress.
My baby became hypoglocemic soon after birth. The pediatrician told me that was because my colostrum could not support a baby that size yet, and she needed more calories than most newborns. Therefore, I had to supplement with formula using a supplemental nursing system (a total, irritating pain if there ever was one) for the first two weeks of her life until my body could produce enough milk to feed a baby the size of a two or three month old infant. I had teams of pediatricians and lactation consultants driving my baby and me crazy to get her blood levels up.
My milk came in on the fifth day after birth (probably extra slow because of the horrible birth experience). She is now three and a half weeks old, and I am constantly working to increase my breast milk.
On a more mundane note: lots of the tiny pretty clothes she has received as gifts from friends and family never fit her. The darling little outfits I took to the hospital never fit and I had to send my poor husband home for more ... (of course, he brought more teensy clothes that were too small). I had to give away my newborn diapers that fit babies up to ten pounds because they never fit her either.
Risk factors for big babies: overweight mothers and older mothers, diabetes, or heredity.