Not a midwife, just a two sections, then 3 vbacs mom, so I've obviously done my homework, hope I qualify to answer.
My last birth was almost a year ago. Went with the cnms at hospital to save $. Big mistake. But anyway...
I was "stuck" at 9 cm for 7 hours, with fht bottoming out in any position other than on all fours. Meconium appeared a couple of hours into this. Obviously, "they," including the doc they called in, were ready to roll to the OR. I was NOT.
Every time they mentioned the OR was ready for me, I countered. "Baby's hr ok on all fours? No thanks to section."
"Meconium now? Is it thick? Not too thick? No surgery."
Over two hours of pushing (remember, baby #5.) Of course, they put me on my back for this, the very position that caused SERIOUS decels. Turned out the cord was wrapped around Kegan's neck twice, very tightly.
That's my story. In retrospect, I wish I'd had a doula. It was very difficult to be always consious of details, and have to be cognizant and fight for myself, when I should have been off in "laborland." I believe that had a lot to do with being at 9cm for so long. I couldn't just "let go" like I should have.
Almost anyone else would have been whisked off to surgery.
I guess, to answer your question, the only situation I can think of that I would agree to a cesarean would be a placental abruption. Of course, even with surgery, there are no guarantees for baby's outcome in that situation.
I'm not really a new member, just a very old member, recycled.