Yes- I have harvested bamboo. You have to or your whole yard will be bamboo, it may even move indoors- it is so hearty!
I had a friend from China and she showed us how. We went out and pulled up the shoots when they were a few inches to ten inches high. Took them inside and washed them. I think (this was several years ago) we stripped off the outer covering, and then sliced them lengthwise.
I used them in stirfries and Chinese dishes. I warn you, they don't have the exact consistency of the ones in Chinese restaurants, but they are good.
You could harvest them daily- they grow so fast.
I have also used bamboo to make fences, support tomato plants, to make rain sticks, and all sorts of crazy things. And it sounds wonderful in the rain and wind- all that soft clacking and swishing. I miss it.