What you're looking for is something that doesn't really exist as far as I know. That's because it's actually an incredibly complex business to digitize pitch, and rhythm, and "discover" an appropriate key signature, and the appropriate time signature, and quantize the rhythm properly into that time signature. If you're a musician who has ever tried to input a MIDI instrument (i.e. with pitch already digitized) into a computer program, you'll quickly discover how hard it is for a computer to do a decent job of even the rhythm quantization part of that task.
It think that robust Digital Music Studio packages (cost $150-500) could do most of what you're asking, but they'd require a lot of musician/DMS expertise to set up the capture parameters properly. And since you'd need a musician available to do that, really it would be much simpler just to ask the musician to manually notate the tune for you (possibly using some basic free music-publishing software like Finale PrintMusic).
I will say that you'd probably really enjoy GarageBand, the bundled music-production software that comes with Mac OS. It allows you to combine vocal input (stored as and audio file) with digital accompaniments by various instruments, messing around with canned riffs, and chord combinations, or composing and editing your own accompaniments. So if you're using a Mac, or can get access to one, look into that. What GarageBand doesn't do, though, is take an audio input file (i.e. wav or mp3) and convert it into the sort of quantized digital music file that can be edited and notated (eg. midi). Some simple filters can be applied: you can lower the pitch, for example, or slow the whole thing down, but that's about it. But it can be layered with other tracks (which may or may not be in editable digital format).
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