Whooping Cough Epidemic Caused by Virulent New Pertussis Strain—And It’s the Result of Vaccine - Mothering Forums
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#1 of 10 Old 10-31-2012, 05:38 AM - Thread Starter
 
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It appears that the whooping cough epidemics are being caused by a more virulent bordetella persussis with a an increased toxin production, This more deadly strain ptxP3 is replacing the vaccine strain ptxP1.

 

 

 

 

Quote:

The ptxP3′s greater virulence is shown in a table of increases in illness and death in The Netherlands between the years 1981-1992 and 1993-2004. The salient points are reproduced here:

Parameter Deaths/100,000
1981-1992 0.00057
1993-2004 0.00582
Increase 10.21 times greater

 

 

 

 

Quote:

 

 

Lest there be any doubt that the CDC is fully aware that a new strain of B. pertussis is causing the new epidemic of whooping cough, refer to Bordetella pertussis Strains with Increased Toxin Production Associated with Pertussis Resurgence, which includes a duplicate of the following graph of Pertussis Trends in the Netherlands:

(see article for a bigger image)

 

 

 

 

 

http://gaia-health.com/gaia-blog/2012-10-31/whooping-cough-epidemic-caused-by-virulent-new-pertussis-strain-and-its-the-result-of-vaccine/

 

(If you don't want to read the article, the sources are linked at the end of the piece.)

 

 


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"If you find from your own experience that something is a fact and it contradicts what some authority has written down, then you must abandon the authority and base your reasoning on your own findings"~ Leonardo da Vinci

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#2 of 10 Old 10-31-2012, 05:55 AM
 
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from the article, one of the references used

 

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/8/08-1511_article.htm

 

 

Quote:
(8,9). Strain variation was shown to affect vaccine efficacy in a mouse model (1013). Because adaptation may involve the structure of virulence factors (by antigenic variation) and their regulation, we extended our studies on the evolution of B. pertussis by investigating polymorphism in the promoter of Ptx (ptxP), a major virulence factor and component of all pertussis vaccines (1). We provide evidence that expansion of strains with increased Ptx production has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis in the Netherlands.

 

 

Quote:
An important issue is whether vaccination has selected for the ptxP3 strains. Several lines of evidence support this contention. First, ptxP3 strains were not found in the prevaccination era. Furthermore, although ptxP3 strains were found in high frequencies in vaccinated populations in the 1990s, they were not detected in Senegal, where vaccination was introduced in 1987 (32). Several studies have provided evidence that increased host immunity may select for higher virulence. Vaccination against 2 avian viruses, the Marek disease virus, and the infectious bursal disease virus, were associated with the emergence of more virulent strains (33). An important role of host immunity in selecting for virulence is also suggested by the co-evolution of the myxomatosis virus and rabbits (34). Furthermore, immune pressure was shown to select for more virulentPlasmodium chabaudi parasites in mice (35). Based on mathematical modeling, vaccines designed to reduce pathogen growth rate and/or toxicity may result in the evolution of pathogens with higher levels of virulence (36).
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#3 of 10 Old 11-01-2012, 02:40 AM
 
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For my blood pressure I choose not to read the anti-vax site spin on the results, but go straight to the article (thanks for the link). 

 

Emmy526 - I notice you didn't include this quote from it: 

 

 

Quote:
The reemergence of pertussis has been attributed to various factors, including increased awareness, improved diagnostics, decreased vaccination coverage, suboptimal vaccines, waning vaccine-induced immunity, and pathogen adaptation.

 

It's quite interesting actually - they are suggesting that by making infants immune to pertussis this selects for strains which can better deal with immune systems which have had more practice at fighting a variety of toxins (ie. adults). In their words: 

 

 

 

Quote:

We propose that the crucial event, which shifted the competitive balance between ptxP1 and ptxP3strains, was the removal by vaccination of immunologically naive infants as the major source for transmission, selecting for strains, which are more efficiently transmitted by primed hosts.

 

 

 

Also I found this interesting: 

 

 

 

Quote:

Pertussis among recently vaccinated children is rare, indicating that pathogen adaptation does not play a role unless immunity has waned. Thus, we propose that waning immunity and pathogen adaptation have contributed to the resurgence of pertussis, although other factors such as increased awareness and improved diagnostics have also played a role.

 

 

And their conclusions about the best way to solve the problem are: 

 

 

 

Quote:
suggest that an effective way to control pertussis is the improvement of current vaccines to induce Ptx-neutralizing antibodies which persist longer.

 

I personally see interesting parallels with anti-biotic resistent bacteria. It's an unfortunate side effect of our ability to kill bacteria with anti-biotics that we are selecting for bacteria which can survive this. But I don't think many people would suggest this means we should completely stop using anti-biotics against any bacteria - we just have to be a bit more clever and keep working on the problem. 


Mother of two living in UK. Daughter (2007) born in USA, son (2010) born here. I'm pro natural birth, midwife care, breastfeeding, co-sleeping, baby wearing and a keen advocate of cloth diapering. I'm a full time working research scientist (physical sciences) and I'm pro-vaccine.

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#4 of 10 Old 11-01-2012, 03:37 AM
 
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Originally Posted by prosciencemum View Post

For my blood pressure I choose not to read the anti-vax site spin on the results, but go straight to the article (thanks for the link). 

 

Emmy526 - I notice you didn't include this quote from it: 

 

 

 

It's quite interesting actually - they are suggesting that by making infants immune to pertussis this selects for strains which can better deal with immune systems which have had more practice at fighting a variety of toxins (ie. adults). In their words: 

 

 

 

 

 

Also I found this interesting: 

 

 

 

 

And their conclusions about the best way to solve the problem are: 

 

 

 

 

I personally see interesting parallels with anti-biotic resistent bacteria. It's an unfortunate side effect of our ability to kill bacteria with anti-biotics that we are selecting for bacteria which can survive this. But I don't think many people would suggest this means we should completely stop using anti-biotics against any bacteria - we just have to be a bit more clever and keep working on the problem. 

 

 

Quote:

Quote:

The reemergence of pertussis has been attributed to various factors, including increased awareness, improved diagnostics, decreased vaccination coverage, suboptimal vaccines, waning vaccine-induced immunity, and pathogen adaptation.

 

 

this goes against their other articles which claimed the nonvaccinated were NOT the cause of the uptick in WC....so for them to put that in there now,  inthis article, at this point, is moot.  when i find the other article link, i'll post it. 

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#5 of 10 Old 11-01-2012, 05:11 AM
 
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duh.gif  This shouldn't come as a surprise to anybody who understands evolution or ecology.   Large-scale use of a fairly ineffective vaccine, of course this is going to happen, how could it not happen.  And this is one of the reasons that I find the current approach to vaccinations reckless.

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#6 of 10 Old 11-01-2012, 06:46 AM
 
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Improving the vaccine is perhaps the best vaccine-related solution I have heard of in terms of keeping WC in check.  Improving the vaccine might need to be done repeatedly, as new strains grow dominant.

 

The other two I have heard are:

 

1.  Give more frequent booster (particularly one around 10-12) but every 3-5 might be necessary.

 

2.  Switch to DTP

 

Never of the above are great solutions.  I think many people suffer from vaccine fatigue - more jabs added to schedule is not necessarily going to go over well.  We know teen and adult vax numbers are well below target -adding more booster to the schedule is not likely to go over well.

 

DPT was quite a reactive vaccine - that is why it was phased out and DTaP introduced.


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#7 of 10 Old 11-02-2012, 02:21 AM
 
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Quote:

 

 I think many people suffer from vaccine fatigue

 

Any evidence of that idea? It sounds inplausible to me, given that the number of antigens in vaccines has actually been going down (mostly due to improvements in vaccine science allowing better vaccines with less antigens), and I am fairly sure the number of things our immune systems deal with daily dwarfs the immunologically active content of any vaccine.


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#8 of 10 Old 11-02-2012, 02:51 AM
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by prosciencemum View Post

For my blood pressure I choose not to read the anti-vax site spin on the results, but go straight to the article (thanks for the link). 

Emmy526 - I notice you didn't include this quote from it: 



It's quite interesting actually - they are suggesting that by making infants immune to pertussis this selects for strains which can better deal with immune systems which have had more practice at fighting a variety of toxins (ie. adults). In their words: 





Also I found this interesting: 




And their conclusions about the best way to solve the problem are: 




I personally see interesting parallels with anti-biotic resistent bacteria. It's an unfortunate side effect of our ability to kill bacteria with anti-biotics that we are selecting for bacteria which can survive this. But I don't think many people would suggest this means we should completely stop using anti-biotics against any bacteria - we just have to be a bit more clever and keep working on the problem. 

Having trouble filtering out the anti-vax spin? But you have no trouble filtering out insults such as 'antivax cranks'. Hmmmm.
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#9 of 10 Old 11-02-2012, 05:59 AM
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by prosciencemum View Post

 

Any evidence of that idea? It sounds inplausible to me, given that the number of antigens in vaccines has actually been going down (mostly due to improvements in vaccine science allowing better vaccines with less antigens), and I am fairly sure the number of things our immune systems deal with daily dwarfs the immunologically active content of any vaccine.

I think we might have a miscommunication.

 

When I say "I think people suffer from vaccine fatigue"  I mean they get tired of repeatedly hauling their butts into a doctors office for a shot.  

 

http://news.yahoo.com/free-flu-shot-program-missing-under-2s-vaccine-040703162.html


There is a battle of two wolves inside us.  One is good and the other is evil.  The wolf that wins is the one you feed.

 

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#10 of 10 Old 11-06-2012, 05:48 AM
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by kathymuggle View Post

I think we might have a miscommunication.

 

When I say "I think people suffer from vaccine fatigue"  I mean they get tired of repeatedly hauling their butts into a doctors office for a shot.  

 

Oh yes - well I agree with that! As I understand it this is one of the main objections to the more delayed schedule - that it's not demonstrated to have any benefit, not tested in the same way the recommended schedule has been, and means a lot more doctors visits. :)

 

On the other hand an extra booster to protect against WC epidemics might be worth it in my opinion.  


Mother of two living in UK. Daughter (2007) born in USA, son (2010) born here. I'm pro natural birth, midwife care, breastfeeding, co-sleeping, baby wearing and a keen advocate of cloth diapering. I'm a full time working research scientist (physical sciences) and I'm pro-vaccine.

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