Abnormal Metabolites, Arabinose, Yeast, Bacteria, Microorganisms, Vax, & Autism - Mothering Forums
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#1 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 12:00 AM - Thread Starter
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Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 41, No. 8, 1995, 1094-1104

Increased Urinary Excretion of Analogs of Krebs Cycle Metabolites and Arabinose in Two Brothers with Autistic Features

I hope someone can enhance my understanding of this study. According to this research article autistic children have elevated levels of metabolites such as citramalic, tartaric, and 3-oxoglutaric acids (as well as arabinose). The children who participated in the study appear to have elevated levels of unknown metabolites as well. The study makes reference to the potential discovery of an unknown citric acid found in high levels in autistic children.

I have a ton of questions but I will start with this quote.

Quote:
Citramalic acid (2-methylmalic acid) and 3-methylmalic acid are analogs of the Krebs cycle intermediate malic acid and might interfere in the further metabolism of malic acid, leading to depletion of oxalacetic acid, the product of the action of malate dehydrogenase on malic acid. Oxalacetic acid is needed for condensation with acetic acid to replenish the Krebs cycle. A significant decrease in Krebs cycle activity could greatly impair cellular energy production. ......Citramalic acid has not been reported as a mammalian metabolite but has been reported to accumulate in respiration-deficient mutants of brewer's, baker's, and wine yeasts. Furthermore, an enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A(CoA) and pyruvate to form citramalic acid has been isolated from baker's yeast. In addition, we have found citramalic to be consistently produced by Propionibacterium acnes cultures from human stool samples (unpublished data).
The first thing I did after reading this study was to do a search on these varioius acids. Fortunately, I found a page on this site that describes these and other types of acids. www.greatplainslaboratory.com/test1comp2.html.

Questions:

What exactly is the Krebs cyle and how does impairment of its process relate to autism?

In terms that a lay person can understand, what is metabolism?

And considering the description of the various acids mentioned in the study is there a possible connection between the vax ingredients and the elevated level of these acids in autistic children?

I also found it interesting that the children in the study were treated frequently with antibiotics in infancy for ear infections....and we know what antibiotics do to healthy gut flora.

Basically, I am looking for someone to break this information down in relation to vaccines and autism. I don't recall the study saying whether or not the children were vax but assuming they were, I wonder if the study unwittingly establishes a link.



Thoughts?
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#2 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 01:25 AM
 
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I used to have the Krebs cycle memorised. I don't anymore and most of it is now chemical reaction gibberish.

Basically the Krebs cycle is an energy cycle whereby glucose is transformed into energy in the mitochondria of cells. This is one pathway for cell respiration and is aerobic. Anerobic respiration ( lactic acid/alcohol production) is another.
In the course of glycolysis and respiration 36 molecules of ATP are regenerated from ADP in the breakdown of each molecule of glucose.

From my text book that is ancient:
Summary - Glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid with a yield of two Adenosine Tri-Phospate (ATP) molecules and the reduction of two NAD+ molecules. Krebs cycle starts with Pyruvic acid that is oxidised to acetyl CoA and one molecule of NAD+ is reduced (note that this and following reactions occur twice for each glucose molecule) In the Krebs cycle the the acetyl group is oxidized and the electron acceptors, NAD+ and FAD are reuced to NADH and FADH2. The NADH and FADH2 then trasfer their electrons to the series of cytochromes and other electron carriers that make up the electron transport chain. As the electrons are passed down the energy chain the energy is used to make Adenosine Tri-Phospate (ATP) from Adenosine Di-Phospate (ADP).

NAD+= nictotinamide adenine di-nucleotide / niacin is a component of this
FAD = Flavin adenine di-nucleotide
CoA = pantothenic acid combined with an enzyme
Oxidation = loss of an electron

Some of the other reactions that are included in the Krebs cycle, are the production and conversion of citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, isocitric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid and oxaloacetic acid.

Please note this description comes with a complete diagram which I can't reproduce. I suggest you get a good biology text if you want to know the truly intricate detail.
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#3 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 12:56 PM - Thread Starter
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Ouch, now my head really hurts! All those chemical reactions are difficult to grasp.

Now, what you described is the Krebs cycle in a healthy functioning person, right?

I'm having trouble understanding exactly how the various acids I mentioned above seem to to alter this Krebs cycle in autistic children?
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#4 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 01:28 PM
 
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Krebs is the citric acid cycle. It's a bunch of reactions normally occuring in mammals to break down protiens, carbs and fats and turn them into mostly C02 and water to be metabolized out of the body. The break down releases energy for the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is basically cellular breathing that makes for producing the body's energy. Abnormalitites, in this cycle, I'm speculating, throw off the normal balance and starve the cells so they don't breath and they don't make energy the same way normal cells would. This is why you see so many autistic kids, IMO, who have to go gluten free and calcium free b/c don't properly break down those proteins. So to further speculate-I'd say that if they can't properly metabolize these proteins and fats, then the mercury from vaccines, for example, will actually bind to the proteins in the body, and NOT be excreted out in urine or stools. It stays inside. Binds inside the proteins. Never comes out. Is toxic. These are just my thoughts. You might wanna double check my "science" too. been a lot of years since I've read anything heavier than Blue's First Picnic, lol.
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#5 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 02:41 PM - Thread Starter
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Something else I thought was interesting was the propionibacterium acnes. From the little that I have learned, this bacteria is known for skin irritations like acne. So I wonder what effect it has if it it takes up residence in the gut.

Saccharomyces was also suspect in the large levels of citramalic acid in the boys. Isn't this the yeast that is commonly used to make vaccines?

http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/test1comp2.html
Quote:
Tartaric (hydroxymalic acid) - Tartaric acid is a toxic metabolite of Saccharomyces yeast species, the same species of yeast that is used in baking and brewing industries. Saccharomyces species may be important organisms in the immuno-compromised person. The fungal origin of this compound was confirmed in my laboratory by showing that this compound decreased dramatically in the urine after the use of antifungal drugs. Tartaric acid is also found in grapes, grape products, and as a food additive. Cream of tartar, used in baking, is basically tartaric acid.

Citramalic (methylmalic) - Citramalic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces yeast species as well as Propionibacterium acnes. This metabolite was not found in the culture media of a wide number of other anaerobic bacteria isolated from stool samples. Thus, an increase in citramalic acid may indicate Propionibacteria overgrowth rather than a yeast overgrowth of the intestinal tract. Citramalic acid is a chemical relative (analog) of the Krebs cycle compound malic acid. Presumably, this compound may interfere with the production of malic acid in the Krebs cycle.
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#6 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 02:58 PM
 
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Funny you posted that blurb about tartaric acid. My son craves grapes. He eats them non stop.
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#7 of 7 Old 06-23-2005, 04:21 PM
 
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Their site is down right now so I can't go look, but I think there's some Krebs cycle info at the website of the University of Sunderland's Autism Research Unit. You might poke around over there & see what you can find.
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