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It's a Delight-Filled Life.
Here's an interesting tidbit:
Only 4 of 520 persons dying from tetanus (0.7%) had a history of at least 3 TT doses
|No, I don't. It's pretty clear from the statistics that vax status is the most significant factor as far as incidence is concerned, and coverage among the elderly is poorer than in other groups.|
|By itself, poor circulation doesn't lead to wounds, lingering or otherwise.|
3 dose DTaP coverage hangs out aroud 95%
2,000 unvaxed kids a year under 1 each year...
Till age 4 will be 8,000...
At age 8, that would be 16,000 if they remain unvaxed...some will vax for school, though, leaving the religious/philo exemptors.
Either way, I wouldn't say unvaxed kids parctically don't exist.
The wound has remained clean and did not get infected. It was not what I would call a deep wound (maybe one millimetre?), but more like a clean slice, so a little more than a scratch. It had sealed up by the end of the day and was clean and just a light red line remains.
Originally Posted by Irishcupcake
so, the elderly, who we already know to be at a higher risk, happened to not be vaxed...and were more likely to die. I really don't see anything to that argument.
|520 people died in 29 years? I don't see how that's "severe and often fatal."|
|500 people die every year from listeria and most people have never heard of it!|
Originally Posted by mamakay
But why again is it that diabetics are more tetanus prone than other people?
|What causes "diabetic foot"?|
|I'm looking for tetanus epidemiology in unvaccinated populations or the prevaccine era.|
|With a 4 million birth cohort...how many kids is 5% of that (for one year)?|
Originally Posted by dymanic
Poor circulation. But you can't extrapolate poor circulation in diabetics to poor circulation in non-diabetics.
|Lots of people with "poor circulation" don't develop open sores as a result.|
|I haven't found anything that shows age-specific incidence in the pre-vaccination era either; but, yes, I'm willing to predict that if we find it, we'll see that incidence among children was higher then|
Originally Posted by me
If the incidence in kids was/is higher than in the elderly there, then you're (probably) right. If the incidence was/is higher in the elderly, then I'm (probably) right.
|I think it ends up being a semantic quibble over the definition of "practically".|
But you can extrapolate this one increased risk of poor circulation in diabetics to poor circulation in the elderly.
|Yes, lots of elderly people and diabetics don't develop tetanus.|
|That the incidence in children was higher than it was in the elderly?|
|But I think poor circulation adds an additional risk (along with declining immune system functioning) to that age group.|
|How many is it that don't (practically or otherwise) exist?|
|Immune function as it relates to tetanus infection is a bit of a special case. As with any infectious disease, immune response does not take place until the pathogen has proliferated enough to become visible to the immune system|
|For this reason, previous infection is not associated with immunity to the disease; if the illness progresses far enough to trigger an immune response, it kills you.|
Antibodies to tetanus toxin have been found in unvaccinated people, with an increasing incidence of seropositivity with increasing age.
|The data for healthy unimmunized persons do not show a clear dependency between age and the presence of tetanus antibodies (Metzkin & Regev 1985)."
|Naturally Acquired Immunity to Tetanus Toxin in an Isolated
HAIM MATZKINt* AND SHARON REGEV
|In Ethiopia, health services are
notoriously poor. It has been estimated that there is about
one physician per 100,000 people. The very small ancient
Jewish community in Ethiopia has suffered from prolonged
persecution and cultural isolation. This community has been
deprived of the poor health services in the country, and
according to our information, none of the subjects included
in our study had ever been attended by a physician, let alone
received any injections during their lifetimes.
|Although only 30% exhibited more than the accepted
protective titer of 0.01 IU/ml (7), the percentage of those
considered protected was age dependent, increasing substantially
from 10% in the first decade to an average of 29% in the
11- to 60-year-old group to 63% in the group over 60 years of
age. Natural immunity to tetanus is gained, as in many other
diseases, through adequate, repeated, and prolonged antigenic
stimulation that sensitizes the immune system. The
opportunities for achieving immunity increase with age, and
this is well reflected in our data.
|Among 48 adults without a history of tetanus immunization, we found with the aid of indirect hemagglutination test 20 individuals with protective tetanus antibody titers, 23 with low levels of antitoxin (under 0,1 I.U./ml) and 5 devoid of tetanus antitoxin. In two blood samples of 99 unvaccinated children under 3 years of age (taken at 7 months intervall) 12,1% showed tetanus antitoxin in the first serum sample and 16,2% in the second sample. Protective antibody titers could be found only in 4 children in each of the first and second serum sample. The data suggest a silent oral immunization by tetanus bacilli thus boosting under unhygienic conditions the tetanus immunity with advancing age.|
|I wonder if anyone's ever looked to see if folks are ever immune to the actual bacteria. Not just the toxin, but the actual bacterial antigens...|
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