I thought it would be informative to put up some terms I keep running into.
"DATA MINING -
Data mining is the process of analyzing hidden patterns of data according to different perspectives for categorization into useful information, which is collected and assembled in common areas, such as data warehouses, for efficient analysis, data mining algorithms, facilitating business decision making and other information requirements to ultimately cut costs and increase revenue.
Data mining is also known as data discovery and knowledge discovery.
Data Mining Techniques
Data mining is highly effective, so long as it draws upon one or more of these techniques:
1. Tracking patterns. One of the most basic techniques in data mining is learning to recognize patterns in your data sets. This is usually a recognition of some aberration in your data happening at regular intervals, or an ebb and flow of a certain variable over time. For example, you might see that your sales of a certain product seem to spike just before the holidays, or notice that warmer weather drives more people to your website.
2. Classification. Classification is a more complex data mining technique that forces you to collect various attributes together into discernable categories, which you can then use to draw further conclusions, or serve some function. For example, if you’re evaluating data on individual customers’ financial backgrounds and purchase histories, you might be able to classify them as “low,” “medium,” or “high” credit risks. You could then use these classifications to learn even more about those customers.
3. Association. Association is related to tracking patterns, but is more specific to dependently linked variables. In this case, you’ll look for specific events or attributes that are highly correlated with another event or attribute; for example, you might notice that when your customers buy a specific item, they also often buy a second, related item. This is usually what’s used to populate “people also bought” sections of online stores.
4. Outlier detection. In many cases, simply recognizing the overarching pattern can’t give you a clear understanding of your data set. You also need to be able to identify anomalies, or outliers in your data. For example, if your purchasers are almost exclusively male, but during one strange week in July, there’s a huge spike in female purchasers, you’ll want to investigate the spike and see what drove it, so you can either replicate it or better understand your audience in the process.
5. Clustering. Clustering is very similar to classification, but involves grouping chunks of data together based on their similarities. For example, you might choose to cluster different demographics of your audience into different packets based on how much disposable income they have, or how often they tend to shop at your store.
6. Regression. Regression, used primarily as a form of planning and modeling, is used to identify the likelihood of a certain variable, given the presence of other variables. For example, you could use it to project a certain price, based on other factors like availability, consumer demand, and competition. More specifically, regression’s main focus is to help you uncover the exact relationship between two (or more) variables in a given data set.
7. Prediction. Prediction is one of the most valuable data mining techniques, since it’s used to project the types of data you’ll see in the future. In many cases, just recognizing and understanding historical trends is enough to chart a somewhat accurate prediction of what will happen in the future. For example, you might review consumers’ credit histories and past purchases to predict whether they’ll be a credit risk in the future.
Data Mining Tools
So do you need the latest and greatest machine learning technology to be able to apply these techniques? Not necessarily. In fact, you can probably accomplish some cutting-edge data mining with relatively modest database systems, and simple tools that almost any company will have. And if you don’t have the right tools for the job, you can always create your own.
However you approach it, data mining is the best collection of techniques you have for making the most out of the data you’ve already gathered. As long as you apply the correct logic, and ask the right questions, you can walk away with conclusions that have the potential to revolutionize your enterprise."
From data science central and technopedia
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE - the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change. Oxford Dictionary
CHERRY PICKING - the action or practice of choosing and taking only the most beneficial or profitable items, opportunities, etc., from what is available. Oxford Dictionary
There are plenty more terms that we come across and do not readily understand.
SAFE - Problems successfully hidden to protect sales
EFFECTIVE - Failures successfully hidden to protect sales
Serotype replacement -
"A phenomenon that vaccine trials are intended, in part, to detect. In addition, nonvaccine type pneumococci, even if they are not more plentiful, may be more readily detected in vaccinated persons. Some unvaccinated persons carry both vaccine-type and nonvaccine-type pneumococci ...
By targeting a small subset of serotypes, we have begun a vast ecological experiment. In short, we have created a vacant niche, which may be filled by pneumococcal serotypes not included in PCV7. This phenomenon of "serotype replacement" is clearly occurring in pneumococcal carriage and can be observed in some types of pneumococcal disease . An important issue is the extent to which this replacement phenomenon will be carried over into invasive disease."
This phenomenon of "serotype replacement" is clearly occurring in pneumococcal carriage and can be observed in some types of pneumococcal disease. An important issue is the extent to which this replacement phenomenon will be carried over into invasive disease."
true placebo -
"is an inert substance or treatment which is designed to have no therapeutic value. Common placebos include inert tablets (like sugar pills), inert injections (like saline), sham surgery, and other procedures."
Arnstein P, Broglio K, Wuhrman E, Kean MB (2011). "Use of placebos in pain management" (PDF). Pain Manag Nurs (Position Statement of the American Society for Pain Management Nursing). 12 (4): 225–9. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2010.10.033. PMID 22117754.
Godwin's law -
see also reductio ad HItlerum
"an Internet adage asserting that "As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1".That is, if an online discussion (regardless of topic or scope) goes on long enough, sooner or later someone will compare someone or something to Adolf Hitler or his deeds, the point at which effectively the discussion or thread often ends. Promulgated by the American attorney and author Mike Godwin in 1990, Godwin's law originally referred specifically to Usenet newsgroup discussions. It is now applied to any threaded online discussion, such as Internet forums, chat rooms, and comment threads, as well as to speeches, articles, and other rhetoric where reductio ad Hitlerum occurs.
Godwin has stated that he introduced Godwin's law in 1990 as an experiment in memetics.
In 2012, "Godwin's law" became an entry in the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary."
"The study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution. Proponents describe memetics as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer. Memetics describes how an idea can propagate successfully, but doesn't necessarily imply a concept is factual.Critics contend the theory is "untested, unsupported or incorrect"
Straw Man -
A form of argument and an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent. In general, the use of a strawman consists of the following three stages:
First, person A states their position.
Then, person B presents a distorted version of person A’s original position, while pretending that there’s no difference between the two versions.
Finally, person B attacks the distorted version of person A’s position, and acts as if this invalidates person A’s original argument.
Essentially, person B creates a strawman,
Hollow man -
A hollow-man argument is an argument that involves inventing a weak fictitious position and attributing it to a vaguely-defined group who is supposed to represent the opposition, before attacking it in an attempt to discredit your opponent."
Iron Man -
An iron-man argument is an argument that involves distorting your own stance in order to make it easier for you to defend. Essentially, an iron-man is constructed in a similar way to the way you would construct a strawman (i.e. by misrepresenting an original stance), but this time it’s in order to strengthen your own stance, rather than to weaken your opponent’s."
All from wikipedia, Oxford dictionary or Merriam-Webster dictionary.
priming - Immune priming is memory-like phenomenon described in invertebrate taxa of animals. It is evolutionary advantageous for an organism to develop a better and faster secondary immune response to pathogen , which is harmful and which it is likely to be exposed again.
T-cell priming - The first contact of a T or B cell with its specific antigen is called priming and causes differentiation into effector T or B cells (cytotoxic, cytokine, antibody). Priming of naïve T cells requires dendritic cell antigen presentation.
T-cell - A T cell is a type of lymphocyte, which develops in the thymus gland (hence the name) and plays a central role in the immune response. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface.
B-cell - also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present antigens (they are also classified as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines. In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. B for bursa.
dendritic - are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems.
Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. They can also be found in an immature state in the blood. Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. At certain development stages they grow branched projections, the dendrites that give the cell its name (δένδρον or déndron being Greek for 'tree'). While similar in appearance, these are structures distinct from the dendrites of neurons. Immature dendritic cells are also called veiled cells, as they possess large cytoplasmic 'veils' rather than dendrites.
seronegative - The term seronegative means they don’t possess the antibodies that seropositive patients do, but the patient still has the symptoms of the autoimmune disease.
cross reactive immunity - In immunology, the cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from the immunogen. It is sometimes also referred to as crossimmunity or cross-protective immunity, although cross-reactivity does not necessarily infer cross-protection. A few examples of cross-reactivity have been confirmed in humans.
antigen - any substance (such as an immunogen or a hapten) foreign to the body that evokes an immune response either alone or after forming a complex with a larger molecule (such as a protein) and that is capable of binding with a product (such as an antibody or T cell) of the immune response.
antibody - any of a large number of proteins of high molecular weight that are produced normally by specialized B cells after stimulation by an antigen and act specifically against the antigen in an immune response, that are produced abnormally by some cancer cells, and that typically consist of four subunits including two heavy chains and two light chains —called also immunoglobulin.
Known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the fragment antigen-binding (Fab) variable region.
Seems to me the immune system is far more complex than vaccine manufacturers would have us believe.
Indeed. All that helpful info barely scratches the surface of what has been discovered about the immune system in the last few years. For example, the role of our microbiome in sustaining immune response.
Is Corona Virus 19 a retrovirus?
Retrovirus - What is the difference between Virus and Retrovirus?
• "Retroviruses are a group of viruses, so retroviruses carry special characteristics, which are not seen in viruses.
• Virus contains genetic material as DNA or RNA but retrovirus contains only RNA.
• If the virus has DNA, it inserts DNA into the host cell, and it is integrated directly into the host genome at the lytic phase, whereas retrovirus has RNA as its genetic material and needs to convert RNA to DNA before insert it into the host genome.
• So, viruses have transcription process, whereas retroviruses have reverse transcription process.
• The second generation of the retrovirus may be different from the first generation because of the inaccuracy of the revere transcription process, whereas mostly the second generation is similar to first generation genetically since the virus has normal transcription process which is accurate than the reverse transcription.
• Because of the vast genetic change in second generation of retroviruses, treatments for diseases caused by them are difficult, than the treatments for virus caused diseases. For an example, HIV does not have such specific treatment, whereas virus diseases have treatment like rabies or influenza."
Just saw this discussing serotype replacement and the problems from use of certain vaccines. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EXweczQX...jpg&name=large
Thank you, Deborah!
Humoral Immunity - "Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides. Humoral immunity is so named because it involves substances found in the humors, or body fluids.
Humoral immune response - "Hypernyms ("humoral immune response" is a kind of...): immune reaction; immune response; immunologic response (a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen)
Humoral Immune Deficiency - "Humoral immunodeficiency refers to diseases resulting from impaired antibody production because of either a molecular defect intrinsic to B cells or a failure of interactions between B and T cells
Cellular Immunity - "Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Memory Cells - Memory cells record information for your immune system about how to fight and destroy viruses and the like that plague the body. When a disease strikes the body the memory cells instruct the body on how to produce antibodies. Once created, these antibodies are released into the bloodstream. Memory cells record information for your immune system about how to fight and destroy viruses and the like that plague the body. When a disease strikes the body the memory cells instruct the body on how to produce antibodies. Once created, these antibodies are released into the bloodstream. Then the antibodies find the disease and destroy it. If a disease that was not previously encountered is introduced into the body, then the immune system (hopefully) destroys it and the memory cells record how it was done."
"Q What is the difference between humoral and cellular immunity?
A The humoral immunity protects against extracellular pathogens, while the cell mediated immunity protects against intracellular pathogens. The main cells, involved in the humoral immunity are the B-cells. ... The humoral immunity has a rapid onset, while the cell mediated immunity has a delayed onset.
From my readings, it is my opinion that vaccines work off of memory cell immunity, only the body seems to forget after a while. The immune system is quite complicated, more so than we have been lead to believe. I would think that most immunologists would have figured that out by now, but what do I know?
Thank you @applejuice for collecting all this information. It is fascinating.
Thanks @applejuice !! :flowersforyou
I was hoping to find a resource like this.
Propaganda: what is it?
50 Types of Propaganda
By Mark Nichol
"Are you a propagandist? If you write nonfiction intended to persuade, yes, by a broad definition, you almost certainly are. Here are fifty terms for, and definitions of, forms of propaganda, at least one of which such writers will likely employ in a given piece of content.
Propaganda (the word is from a New Latin term meaning “propagating,” synonymous in this connotation with publicizing) has been defined as “communication intended to shape perceptions, manipulate cognition, and direct behavior.” That’s a broad definition — a narrower one would limit propaganda to willful, prejudicial manipulation of information — but it helps writers and readers understand that because almost any content can be considered propaganda, they must be alert to the subtext of almost any content they produce or consume.
1. Ad hominem: attacking opponents rather than opponents’ ideas or principles
2. Ad nauseam: repeating ideas relentlessly so that the audience becomes inured to them
3. Appeal to authority: use of authority figures (or perceived authority figures such as celebrities) to support ideas
4. Appeal to fear: exploitation of audience anxieties or concerns
5. Appeal to prejudice: exploitation of an audience’s desire to believe that it is virtuous or morally or otherwise superior
6. Bandwagon: exploitation of an audience’s desire to conform by encouraging adherence to or acceptance of idea that is supposedly garnering widespread or universal support
7. Beautiful people: depiction of attractive famous people or happy people to associate success or happiness with adherence to an idea or cause or purchase of a product
8. Black-and-white fallacy: presentation of only two alternatives, one of which is identified as undesirable
9. Classical conditioning: association of an idea with another stimulus
10. Cognitive dissonance: using a favorable stimulus to prompt acceptance of an unfavorable one, or producing an unfavorable association
11. Common man: adoption of mannerisms and/or communication of principles that suggest affinity with the average person
12. Cult of personality: creation of an idealized persona, or exploitation of an existing one, as a spokesperson for an idea or a cause
13. Demonizing the enemy: dehumanizing or otherwise denigrating opponents to sway opinion
14. Dictat: mandating adherence to an idea or cause by presenting it as the only viable alternative
15. Disinformation: creating false accounts or records, or altering or removing existing ones, to engender support for or opposition to an idea or cause
16. Door in the face: seeking compliance with a request by initially requesting a greater commitment and then characterizing the desired outcome as a compromise or a minor inconvenience
17. Euphoria: generating happiness or high morale by staging a celebration or other motivating event or offer
18. Fear, uncertainty, and doubt: disseminating false or negative information to undermine adherence to an undesirable belief or opinion
19. Flag waving: appealing to nationalism or patriotism
20. Foot in the door: manipulation by encouraging a small gift or sacrifice, which establishes a bond that can be exploited to extract more significant compliance
21. Glittering generalities: applying emotionally appealing but vague and meaningless words to an idea or cause
22. Half-truth: making a statement that is partly true or only part of the truth, or is otherwise deceptive
23. Inevitable victory: assurance of uncommitted audience members and reassurance of committed audience members that an idea or cause will prevail
24. Join the crowd: communication intended to persuade the audience to support an idea or cause because it is or will be the dominant paradigm
25. Labeling or name-calling: using euphemistic or dysphemistic terms to encourage a positive or negative perception of a person, an idea, or a cause
26. Latitudes of acceptance: introducing an extreme point of view to encourage acceptance of a more moderate stance, or establishing a barely moderate stance and gradually shifting to an extreme position
27. The lie: false or distorted information that justifies an action or a belief and/or encourages acceptance of it
28. Love bombing: isolation of the target audience from general society within an insular group that devotes attention and affection to the target audience to encourage adherence to an idea or cause
29. Managing the news: influencing news media by timing messages to one’s advantage, reinterpreting controversial or unpopular actions or statements (also called spinning), or repeating insubstantial or inconsequential statements that ignore a problem (also called staying on message)
30. Milieu control: using peer or social pressure to engender adherence to an idea or cause; related to brainwashing and mind control
31. Obfuscation: communication that is vague and ambiguous, intended to confuse the audience as it seeks to interpret the message, or to use incomprehensibility to exclude a wider audience
32. Operant conditioning: indoctrination by presentation of attractive people expressing opinions or buying products
33. Oversimplification: offering generalities in response to complex questions
34. Pensée unique (French for “single thought”): repression of alternative viewpoints by simplistic arguments
35. Quotes out of context: selective use of quotations to alter the speaker’s or writer’s intended meaning or statement of opinion
36. Rationalization: use of generalities or euphemisms to justify actions or beliefs
37. Red herring: use of irrelevant data or facts to fallaciously validate an argument
38. Reductio ad Hitlerum: persuasion of an audience to change its opinion by identifying undesirable groups as adherents of the opinion, thus associating the audience with such groups
39. Repetition: repeated use of a word, phrase, statement, or image to influence the audience
40. Scapegoating: blaming a person or a group for a problem so that those responsible for it are assuaged of guilt and/or to distract the audience from the problem itself and the need to fix it
41. Selective truth: restrictive use of data or facts to sway opinion that might not be swayed if all the data or facts were given
42. Sloganeering: use of brief, memorable phrases to encapsulate arguments or opinions on an emotional rather than a logical level
43. Stereotyping: incitement of prejudice by reducing a target group, such as a segment of society or people adhering to a certain religion, to a set of undesirable traits
44. Straw man: misrepresentation or distortion of an undesirable argument or opinion, or misidentifying an undesirable persona or an undesirable single person as representative of that belief, or oversimplifying the belief
45. Testimonial: publicizing of a statement by an expert, authority figure, or celebrity in support of an idea, cause, or product in order to prompt the audience to identify with the person and support the idea or cause or buy the product
46. Third party: use of a supposedly impartial person or group, such as a journalist or an expert, or a group falsely represented as a grassroots organization, to support an idea or cause or recommend a product
47. Thought-terminating cliché: use of a truism to stifle dissent or validate faulty logic
48. Transfer: association of an entity’s positive or negative qualities with another entity to suggest that the latter entity embodies those qualities
49. Unstated assumption: implicit expression of an idea or cause by communication of related concepts without expressing the idea or cause
50. Virtue words: expression of words with positive connotations to associate an idea or cause with the self-perceived values of the audience."
From physicians for informed consent -
"Did you know that antibodies are not necessary for protection against some viruses?
“The results presented here contradict the current view that B cell-derived neutralizing antibodies are absolutely required to survive a primary cytopathic viral infection, such as that caused by VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus )…Utilizing mice that possess B cells but lack antibodies, we show here that survival upon subcutaneous (s.c.) VSV challenge was independent of neutralizing antibody production or cell-mediated adaptive immunity.”
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