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My mom is really leaning on me to wean sarah (13 months old) because she was found to be anemic(we are doing supplements as ped reccommended) My sarah eats and bf's so I feel happy with that and I would say her calorie intake is about 1/2 and 1/2.....1/2 solids and 1/2 my milk. .. I want to be able to send my mom info that reccommends bf'ing past one year old and the more "mainstream and official" the reccommender the better.........I am having a hell of a time getting good quotes and am running low on online time to look.........any help would be great!!!
 

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I spent some time getting togther information on breastfeeding, so I thought I'd share with you the information I have on extended breastfeeding. The links all worked at the time I put this together about 3-6 months ago, so I hope they still work <img alt="" class="inlineimg" src="http://www.mothering.com/discussions/images/smilies/smile.gif" style="border:0px solid;" title="smile"> HTH!<br><br>
Why Extended Nursing?<br><br>
From The American Academy of Physicians: (<a href="http://www.aafp.org/x6633.xml" target="_blank">http://www.aafp.org/x6633.xml</a>)<br>
Breastfeeding should ideally continue beyond infancy, but this is currently not the cultural norm and requires ongoing support and encouragement. Breastfeeding during a subsequent pregnancy is not unusual. If the pregnancy is normal and the mother is healthy, breastfeeding during pregnancy is the woman's personal decision. If the child is younger than two years of age, the child is at increased risk of illness if weaned. Breastfeeding the nursing child after delivery of the next child (tandem nursing) may help to provide a smooth transition psychologically for the older child.<br><br>
In the second year (12-23 months), 448 mL of breastmilk provides:<br>
o29% of energy requirements<br>
o43% of protein requirements<br>
o36% of calcium requirements<br>
o75% of vitamin A requirements<br>
o76% of folate requirements<br>
o94% of vitamin B12 requirements<br>
o60% of vitamin C requirements<br>
--2001 Dewey KG, Finley DA, Lonnerdal B. Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7-20 months). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1984 Nov;3(5):713-20.<br><br>
"Antibodies are abundant in human milk throughout lactation" (Nutrition During Lactation 1991; p. 134). In fact, some of the immune factors in breastmilk increase in concentration during the second year and also during the weaning process. (Goldman 1983, Goldman & Goldblum 1983, Institute of Medicine 1991).<br><br>
Nursing toddlers between the ages of 16 and 30 months have been found to have fewer illnesses and illnesses of shorter duration than their non-nursing peers (1986 Gulick EE. The effects of breastfeeding on toddler health. Pediatr Nurs. 1986 Jan-Feb;12(1):51-4.).<br><br>
A US Surgeon General has stated that it is a lucky baby who continues to nurse until age two. (1990 Novello A, MD, US Surgeon General, "You Can Eat Healthy," Parade Magazine (11 Nov 1990): 5.)<br><br>
Scientific research by a professor at Texas A&M shows that 2.5 to 7.0 years of nursing is what our children have been designed to expect based on species closest to humans (gorillas, chimpanzees, monkeys). Here is an excerpt on that study:<br>
Some of the results are as follows:<br>
1. In a group of 21 species of non-human primates (monkeys and apes) studied by Holly Smith, she found that the offspring were weaned at the same time they were getting their first permanent molars. In humans, that would be: 5.5-6.0 years.<br>
2. It has been common for pediatricians to claim that length of gestation is approximately equal to length of nursing in many species, suggesting a weaning age of 9 months for humans. However, this relationship turns out to be affected by how large the adult animals are -- the larger the adults, the longer the length of breastfeeding relative to gestation. For chimpanzees and gorillas, the two primates closest in size to humans and also the most closely genetically related, the relationship is 6 to 1. That is to say, they nurse their offspring for SIX times the length of gestation (actually 6.1 for chimps and 6.4 for gorillas, with humans mid-way in size between these two). In humans, that would be: 4.5 years of nursing (six times the 9 months of gestation).<br>
3. It has been common for pediatricians to claim that most mammals wean their offspring when they have tripled their birth weight, suggesting a weaning age of 1 year in humans. Again though, this is affected by body weight, with larger mammals nursing their offspring until they have quadrupled their birth weight. In humans, quadrupling of birth weight occurs between 2.5 and 3.5 years, usually.<br>
4. One study of primates showed that the offspring were weaned when they had reached about 1/3 their adult weight. This happens in humans at about 5-7 years.<br>
5. A comparison of weaning age and sexual maturity in non-human primates suggests a weaning age of 6-7 for humans (about half-way to reproductive maturity).<br>
6. Studies have shown that a child's immune system doesn't completely mature until about 6 years of age, and it is well established that breast milk helps develop the immune system and augment it with maternal antibodies as long as breast milk is produced (up to two years, no studies have been done on breast milk composition after two years post partum).<br>
And on and on. The minimum predicted age for a natural age of weaning in humans is 2.5 years, with a maximum of 7.0 years.<br>
(Dettwyler 1995 <a href="http://www.prairienet.org/laleche/detwean.html" target="_blank">http://www.prairienet.org/laleche/detwean.html</a>).<br><br>
The American Academy of Pediatrics<br>
(<a href="http://www.aap.org/policy/re9729.html" target="_blank">http://www.aap.org/policy/re9729.html</a>) recommends that "breastfeeding continue for at least 12 months, and thereafter for as long as mutually desired."<br><br>
The World Health Organization (<a href="http://www.who.int/child-adolescent-health/NUTRITION/infant_exclusive.htm" target="_blank">http://www.who.int/child-adolescent-..._exclusive.htm</a>) recommends that babies be breastfed for *at least* two years.<br><br>
American Academy of Pediatrics: (1997)<br>
"It is recommended that breastfeeding continue for at least 12 months, and thereafter as long as mutually desired."<br><a href="http://www.aap.org/policy/re9729.html" target="_blank">http://www.aap.org/policy/re9729.html</a><br><br>
American Academy of Family Physicians: (1989, revised 2001)<br>
"Breastfeeding beyond the first year offers considerable benefits to both mother and child, and should continue as long as mutually desired....Breastfeeding should ideally continue beyond infancy, but this is currently not the cultural norm and requires ongoing support and encouragement....If the child is younger than two years of age, the child is at increased risk of illness if weaned. Breastfeeding the nursing child after delivery of the next child (tandem nursing) may help to provide a smooth transition psychologically for the older child.<br><a href="http://www.aafp.org/x6633.xml" target="_blank">http://www.aafp.org/x6633.xml</a><br><br>
The World Health Organization and UNICEF: (joint statement 1990)<br>
"children should continue to be breastfed, while receiving appropriate and adequate complementary foods, for up to two years of age or beyond."<br><a href="http://www.unicef.org/programme/bre...g/innocenti.htm" target="_blank">http://www.unicef.org/programme/bre...g/innocenti.htm</a><br><br>
"There are unquestionable nutritional and economic advantages of sustained breastfeeding. Even beyond infancy young children return to the breast for comfort when they are sick...and thereby passively receive more food than others who are sick.<br>
-Dr. Ted Greiner<br><a href="http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Spa/3156/care.htm" target="_blank">http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Spa/3156/care.htm</a><br><br>
"UNICEF and the World Health Organization both advise breastfeeding to 'two years and beyond.' Indeed, a child's immune response does not reach its full strength until age five or so."<br>
Dr. Jack Newman, from Scientific American magazine<br><a href="http://www.breastfeedingonline.com/29.html" target="_blank">http://www.breastfeedingonline.com/29.html</a><br><br>
See also the excellent references at <a href="http://www.kellymom.com" target="_blank">http://www.kellymom.com</a> about nursing past one year, and the article "101 Reasons to Breastfeed" at <a href="http://www.promom.org" target="_blank">http://www.promom.org</a>
 

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<img alt="" class="inlineimg" src="http://www.mothering.com/discussions/images/smilies/confused.gif" style="border:0px solid;" title="Confused">: Did you mean to post this to the Archives section? Maybe a mod will move it for you.<br><br>
Here are <a href="http://www.kellymom.com/bf/bfextended/index.html" target="_blank">Kellymom's pages on nursing past the first year</a>. See esp. the fact sheet, references, and links....your mom will be up reading until 4 in the morning! <img alt="" class="inlineimg" src="http://www.mothering.com/discussions/images/smilies/orngbiggrin.gif" style="border:0px solid;" title="orange big grin"><br><br>
Edited for spelling.
 
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