We live in a culture deeply devoted to getting its citizens to read at the earliest possible age. Whether it's flashcards, alphabet-focused toys, iPad reading apps or "teachable moments about letters" sprinkled throughout daily life with toddlers and preschoolers, we seem hellbent on hatching early readers. This, despite evidence that suggests there are much better ways to develop lifelong readers.
And parents feel little choice in the matter: sadly, a 5- or 6-year-old kindergarten student in public or conventional private school who isn't quite fluent with letters is already behind the 8-ball!
Child psychologist David Elkind has devoted his professional life at Tufts University to studying the costs of "hurrying" children. He points out that true reading readiness only emerges once a child has attained the neuro-cognitive milestone of syllogistic reasoning ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; thus Socrates is mortal"), which dawns during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development.
This "con-op leap" happens around age seven, and is a biologically based milestone, just like the shedding of baby teeth or the onset of puberty. How many parents fret if their son hasn't managed to lose his first tooth as soon as his friend did… or if their daughter at thirteen "still just has not been able to get her period"?
We wisely recognize that biology has its own internal timeline, but where neurobiology is concerned, well, that's a different animal. Society and those not educated in how brains work and develop make us anxious. We worry our children will fall behind and we want to get in there and… tinker and tweak… optimize… accelerate… give them a head start. So we reach for the flashcards, or whatever the method du jour is when it comes to our children reading.
What Research Really Says About Whether Your Child Is Ready To Read
As we have better access to what a child's brain looks like as it is learning and developing, we have better information about the neural processes that go with reading. And, we have more research that supports your child learning to read is not necessarily based on any program you buy or execute, but so many more biological and developmental milestones.
That said, there ARE things you can do if you are interested in helping your child have a stronger foundation when it comes to reading. While research suggests that talking with and to your children can give them stronger vocabularies, it also supports that even stronger vocabularies can be developed if *you* read to your children. That's right--bedtime stories, at the restaurant while you're waiting for your meal to arrive; long drives in the car (if you're not driving!)--all of those make great opportunities for you to read to your child and help give them better vocabulary skills for when they are ready to read.
And we're talking significantly better vocabulary words. Researchers and experts call it the Million Word Advantage. This research suggests that children who were read five books a day by the time they were five-years-old heard an average of 296,660 more words than their peers who were not read to. Do the math for that one and it means that those kindergarteners who were read to daily heard 1,483,000 more words by their first day of school!
Think about it. Do you want your child to learn to read so they can keep up with (often developmentally inappropriate) curriculums or because you want to raise a life-long reader who learns to read so she can then read and learn? Exactly. We all vote for the life-long learner, but somewhere along the line, we feel like holding to our beliefs (and those of experienced educators and researchers) is tossed to the side in the name of 'curriculum.'
Mamas, don't let that happen to you. Consider the education backgrounds of many state school administrations. There are some states where the state superintendent isn't even an educator--he or she is a politician, elected and with no knowledge whatsoever of how brains learn. Still, they run our schools? Don't fall for it. You are your child's first (and arguably, best) teacher and when YOU decide your child is ready to read, you can look into seeing what the experts say.
That said, we've done a lot of the legwork for you, and have some points to ponder about their development and their reading readiness from pediatricians and neural researchers.
Assessing If Your Child is Ready to Read: A Checklist
[Not meant as medical advice, but as guidelines for parents in noticing sensory-motor integration and development in their young children. Thanks to developmental and behavioral pediatrician Dr. Susan Johnson for contributing important information to this guide.]
True reading readiness (as opposed to forced "reading readiness") is a biological phenomenon, and requires that a child has passed a number of benchmarks of sensory-motor integration-which is an aspect of healthy brain development! Many of these benchmarks have been passed when a child is able to do the following:
- Pay attention and sit still in a chair for at least 20 minutes (without needing to wiggle or sit on his feet or wrap his feet around the legs of the chair as a way to locate his body in space)
- Balance on one foot, without her knees touching, and in stillness, with both arms out to her sides-and count backwards without losing her balance.
- Stand on one foot, with arms out in front of him, palms facing up, with both eyes closed for 10 seconds and not fall over.
- Reproduce various geometric shapes, numbers, or letters onto a piece of paper with a pencil while someone else traces these shapes, letters, or numbers on her back.
- Walk on a balance beam
- Jump rope by themselves, forwards & backwards
- Skip in a cross-lateral pattern (opposite arm & leg extending)
How You Can Help Your Child Get Ready to Read
Support for sensory-motor integration comes not from flashcards or "educational" apps-but from the following activities.
Physical movements, such as:
- Skipping (cross-lateral)
- Rolling down hills
- Playing catch with a ball
- Jumping rope
- Clapping games
- Circle games
Fine motor activities to strengthen important neural pathways, such as:
- Cutting with scissors
- Digging in the garden
- Kneading dough (play or bread!)
- Pulling weeds
- String games (e.g., Jacob's Ladder)
- Finger crochet/knitting
Spotting Obstacles to Reading Readiness
Children who have difficulties reading and writing often also have
- a poorly developed sense of balance
- difficulty making eye contact
- difficulty tracking or following with their eyes, w/o moving head, for 90 sec., or steadily converging their eyes on an object coming closer (going "cross-eyed")
- trouble distinguishing the right side of their body from the left
- difficulty sitting still in a chair (tendency to wriggle around, sit on one or both feet, or wrap feet around chair legs-in order to locate the body in space)
- poor muscle tone exemplified by a slumped posture
- a tense or fisted pencil grip
- "flat feet" (collapsed arches)
- oversensitivity to touch
- overactive sympathetic nervous system (fight/flight/freeze), thus extra sensitive to the stimulant effects of sugar, chocolate, lack of sleep, changes in routines, watching television, playing computer/video games
Trusting Nature's Timetable
Developmental pediatrician Susan Johnson has seen children diagnosed with AD/HD or learning disabilities "miraculously" improve when they are taken out of an academic kindergarten or given an extra year in a developmental kindergarten that emphasizes movement, play, and the integration of their sensory-motor systems.
We wouldn't label a child with a disorder (or try to hurry them along) if she was "late" to lose her first tooth or begin menstruating. Reading is similarly linked to a child's uniquely unfolding biology, so relax and enjoy your children's childhood!! Read to them, tell them stories, let them play, putter, and pretend: that is the most reliable foundation for your children's healthiest brain development and later reading skills and academic success!
For further, more detailed, information on sensory integration and reading readiness, see Dr. Johnson's article "Teaching Our Children to Write, Read, and Spell."
Top image by Mo6nl, through a Creative Commons license.