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<p>I swear, I'm not making this up.  Check it out: <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X11019086" target="_blank">http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X11019086</a>  (bolding below is mine)</p>
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<div class="abstract svAbstract" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:-2px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;">
<h2 class="secHeading" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1.2em;font-weight:100;margin-top:20px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;color:rgb(92,92,92);line-height:1.5em;clear:both;"> </h2>
<h1 class="svTitle" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1.4em;font-weight:700;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;color:rgb(92,92,92);line-height:1.5em;clear:both;font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;">Anti-vaccine activists, Web 2.0, and the postmodern paradigm – An overview of tactics and tropes used online by the anti-vaccination movement</h1>
<ul class="authorGroup" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;list-style-type:none;color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;"><li style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;display:inline;">Anna Kata<a class="intra_ref" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X11019086#cor0005" id="user_bcor0005" style="color:rgb(49,108,157);border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;" target="_blank" title="Corresponding author contact information"><img alt="Corresponding author contact information" src="http://cdn.els-cdn.com/sd/entities/REcor.gif" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;max-width:600px;"></a><sup style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:.75em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:super;line-height:0;">, </sup><a href="mailto:[email protected]" style="color:rgb(49,108,157);border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;"><img alt="E-mail the corresponding author" src="http://cdn.els-cdn.com/sd/entities/REemail.gif" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;max-width:600px;"></a><sup style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:.75em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:super;line-height:0;">, </sup><a href="mailto:[email protected]" style="color:rgb(49,108,157);border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;"><img alt="E-mail the corresponding author" src="http://cdn.els-cdn.com/sd/entities/REemail.gif" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;max-width:600px;"></a></li>
</ul><ul class="affiliation" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:.8em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;list-style-type:none;color:rgb(92,92,92);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;"><li style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:11px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;">McMaster University, Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 555 Sanatorium Road Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 1C4</li>
</ul><ul class="articleDates" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:.8em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;list-style-type:none;color:rgb(92,92,92);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;"><li style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:11px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;display:inline;">Received 26 May 2011. Revised 25 September 2011. Accepted 30 November 2011. Available online 13 December 2011.</li>
</ul><ul class="articleDoi" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:.8em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;list-style-type:none;color:rgb(92,92,92);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;"><li style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:11px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;float:left;display:inline;"><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.112" id="user_ddDoi" style="color:rgb(49,108,157);border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:11px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;" target="_blank">http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.112</a>, <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/help/doi.htm" style="color:rgb(49,108,157);border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:11px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;" target="_blank">How to Cite or Link Using DOI</a></li>
</ul><ul class="articleInfo" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:.8em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;list-style-type:none;color:rgb(92,92,92);clear:both;font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;"><li class="permissions" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:11px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;">
<div class="boxLink" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;width:auto;height:15px;"> </div>
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</ul><h2 class="secHeading" id="user_section_abstract" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1.2em;font-weight:100;margin-top:20px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;color:rgb(92,92,92);line-height:1.5em;clear:both;">Abstract</h2>
<p id="user_spar0010" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:9px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;word-spacing:-.15ex;text-align:justify;">Websites opposing vaccination are prevalent on the Internet. Web 2.0, defined by interaction and user-generated content, has become ubiquitous. Furthermore, a new postmodern paradigm of healthcare has emerged, where power has shifted from doctors to patients, the legitimacy of science is questioned, and expertise is redefined. Together this has created an environment where anti-vaccine activists are able to effectively spread their messages. Evidence shows that individuals turn to the Internet for vaccination advice, and suggests such sources can impact vaccination decisions – therefore it is likely that anti-vaccine websites can influence whether people vaccinate themselves or their children. This overview examines the types of rhetoric individuals may encounter online in order to better understand why the anti-vaccination movement can be convincing, despite lacking scientific support for their claims. Tactics and tropes commonly used to argue against vaccination are described. This includes actions such as skewing science, shifting hypotheses, censoring dissent, and attacking critics; <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong>also discussed are frequently made claims such as not being “anti-vaccine” but “pro-safe vaccines”</strong></span>, that vaccines are toxic or unnatural, and more. Recognizing disingenuous claims made by the anti-vaccination movement is essential in order to critically evaluate the information and misinformation encountered online.</p>
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<hr id="user_abstract" style="background-color:rgb(183,183,183);border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;height:1px;margin-top:12px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:12px;margin-left:0px;color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;font-weight:100;line-height:20px;"><div class="abstract svAbstract" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:-2px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:'Arial Unicode MS', 'Arial Unicode', Arial, 'URW Gothic L', Helvetica, Tahoma, sans-serif;line-height:20px;">
<h4 id="user_secGabs_N70143cc0N6ad80030" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1.05em;font-weight:100;margin-top:20px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:6px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;color:rgb(92,92,92);line-height:1.5em;clear:both;">Highlights</h4>
<div id="user_spar0005" style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:1em;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;">
<p style="border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;font-size:13px;font-weight:100;margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:9px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;vertical-align:baseline;word-spacing:-.15ex;text-align:justify;">► Web 2.0 and the postmodern medical paradigm aid in spreading anti-vaccine messages. ► Evidence suggests online information may influence vaccination decisions. ► Tactics and tropes used online by the anti-vaccine movement are described. ► Awareness of anti-vaccine techniques is needed to recognize disingenuous claims.</p>
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Discussion Starter · #2 ·
<p>Gee, do you think anyone who criticized Toyota's previous safety problems would be dubbed "anti-car?"</p>
 

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<p>Yes but driving a Toyota is not mandatory and forced upon the American population. Can you imagine if it were - I bet one would be "anti-car"!</p>
 

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<p>Thanks for posting this. </p>
<p>'Antivaccinationists' have been around since the smallpox vaccine. People opposed mandatory vaccination back in the 1800's and formed leagues opposing it. The author, Anna Kata should actually utilize the internet and research the history of the anti vaccine movement. It's nothing new.</p>
 

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<p>I'm actually anti-vaccine though just because of all the research I've done I think every single vaccine is harmful and the natural immune system is what humans are meant to strengthen in order to fight diseases. Injecting toxins, chemicals bacteria and viruses into into the body that flows into the blood stream and can land anywhere else in the body violates and harms nature IMO, so i'm anti-vaccines 100%.</p>
 

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<p>I've heard people say that both sides can come across holding such strong views that they have a "religious" feel to them. That article is more comparable to a cult like following. Wow. Why are vaccines the only medicine that can never be questioned, improved, or refused?</p>
 
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